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Academic Instruction for Students with Moderate and Severe Intellectual Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms


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Table of Contents

Foreword. by Diane Ryndak - Diane Ryndak Preface Acknowledgments About the Author 1. Teaching Students With Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities in General Education Classrooms: Foundational Beliefs Key Concepts A Historical Perspective: Where We Came From The Present Situation and Challenge What is Inclusive Education? What is Not Inclusive Education Who Are We Talking About? Summary 2. Instructional Strategies and Teaching Arrangements Key Concepts Characteristics of Effective Instruction for All Students Clear Expectations Analyzing Tasks for Improved Learning What We Know About Teaching Students with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities The Importance of Student Interests Components of the Teaching Task Prompting Strategies Consequences of the Behavior Using Sequences of Different Prompts to Teach Students: Shaping Behavior Maintaining and Generalizing Skills Teaching Arrangements in General Education Classrooms Summary 3. Determining Student Needs: What to Teach Key Concepts Limitations of Standardized Assessment Family and Child-Based Assessment Procedure Record Review Observational Assessments What's the Class Doing? Interpreting Content Standards Blending Student/Family Goals with State Standards Identifying Learning Opportunities Writing IEP Goals and Objectives Summary 4. Teaching Core Curriculum to Students With Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities Key Concepts The Critical Need to Adapt Curriculum to Make it Meaningful Identifying the BIG Ideas from Core Curriculum Determining Prompts to Use for a Particular Student and Lesson Examples of Students Receiving Direct Instruction Across Grades and Instructional Arrangements Large Group Instruction Generalization of Skills Taught Summary 5. It Takes a Village: Teaching as a Collaborative Effort Key Concepts The Expectation of Team Collaboration Team Members Involved in Instruction Credentialed Teachers Co-Teaching Supporting General Education Ownership Paraprofessionals as Teachers Related Service Providers Parent Volunteers Peers as Teachers A Few Cautions When Using Peers The Need for Information and Training Effective Use of Team Members The Importance of Consistency Generalization of Skills Across Team Members Summary 6. Keeping Track of Student Progress, by Kathryn D. Peckham-Hardin and June E. Downing Key Concepts Types of Data Collection Strategies Linking Data Collection Methods to the IEP Objectives Collecting Data While Teaching in General Education Classrooms Examples of Collecting Data During Instructional Times Test Taking by the Class Training Paraprofessionals and Others to Take Data The Need for Alternate Assessment Summary 7. He's Getting It! Now What? Taking Learning to the Next Level Key Concepts Involving the Student in Planning Next Steps Writing IEP Objectives to Reflect Next Steps Using Standards and Performance Indicators to Determine Next Steps Using Task Analyses to Determine Next Steps Using Life Needs to Determine Next Steps Postsecondary Options Next Steps for Nonacademic Skills Summary References Index

About the Author

June E. Downing is Professor Emerita of Special Education at California State University, Northridge, and prior to that was at the University of Arizona in Tucson, where she did research and prepared teachers to work in the area of moderate, severe, and multiple disabilities. She is a national leader in the field of special education that targets the needs of students with severe disabilities, especially with regard to inclusive education. She has published numerous articles, chapters, monographs, and seven books on students having severe and multiple disabilities. She served for six years on the Executive Board of TASH, an international advocacy organization for individuals with severe disabilities, and was a past president of the California Chapter of this organization-CalTASH as well as AZTASH. She has served as an associate editor of Research and Practices for Persons With Severe Disabilities and currently serves on this board as well as several other professional editorial boards. She is presently serving as an educational consultant, traveling extensively in the United States and abroad to do presentations on various subjects.


"June Downing has a talent for explaining complex information in easily understood ways using practical examples that reflect exemplary, evidence-based educational practices. This book goes a long way in conceptualizing access to the general education curriculum for students with severe intellectual disabilities and operationalizing it within typical regular class activities. It is a valuable resource for teachers, special educators, parents, and related service providers interested in extending inclusive opportunities for students with severe disabilities." -- Michael F. Giangreco, Professor
"A useful resource for all educational teams who plan for students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities. In each chapter Downing summarizes current, key research and offers practical applications from her wealth of experience in schools. Readers who are new to planning for students with severe disabilities will find excellent coverage of the basics like systematic instruction, positive behavior support, and collaboration. Professionals with extensive experience will benefit from the new ideas for planning, including specific examples of adapting academic content, considering both family goals and state standards in planning, and using universal design for learning." -- Diane M. Browder, Snyder Distinguished Professor of Special Education
"Anyone who reads this book will benefit from the dedicated career and expertise of June Downing encapsulated in a clear, practical resource. This book can help educators make meaningful differences in the lives of diverse-ability learners in inclusive settings." -- Ellin Siegel, Associate Professor, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

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