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Business Data Communications and Networking, Twelth Edition
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Table of Contents

About the Authors iii Preface v PART ONE INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Data Communications 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Data Communications Networks 4 1.2.1 Components of a Network 4 1.2.2 Types of Networks 6 1.3 Network Models 7 1.3.1 Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model 8 1.3.2 Internet Model 9 1.3.3 Message Transmission Using Layers 10 1.4 Network Standards 13 1.4.1 The Importance of Standards 13 1.4.2 The Standards-Making Process 13 1.4.3 Common Standards 16 1.5 Future Trends 16 1.5.1 Wireless LAN and BYOD 16 1.5.2 TheWeb ofThings 17 1.5.3 Massively Online 17 1.6 Implications for Management 18 PART TWO FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 26 Chapter 2 Application Layer 26 2.1 Introduction 26 2.2 Application Architectures 27 2.2.1 Host-Based Architectures 28 2.2.2 Client-Based Architectures 28 2.2.3 Client-Server Architectures 29 2.2.4 Cloud Computing Architectures 32 2.2.5 Peer-to-Peer Architectures 34 2.2.6 Choosing Architectures 35 2.3 WorldWideWeb 36 2.3.1 How theWebWorks 36 2.3.2 Inside an HTTP Request 37 2.3.3 Inside an HTTP Response 38 2.4 Electronic Mail 39 2.4.1 How EmailWorks 40 2.4.2 Inside an SMTP Packet 43 2.4.3 Attachments in Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension 43 2.5 Other Applications 44 2.5.1 Telnet 44 2.5.2 Instant Messaging 45 2.5.3 Videoconferencing 46 2.6 Implications for Management 48 Chapter 3 Physical Layer 60 3.1 Introduction 60 3.2 Circuits 62 3.2.1Circuit Configuration 62 3.2.2 Data Flow 63 3.2.3 Multiplexing 64 3.3 CommunicationMedia 66 3.3.1 Twisted Pair Cable 66 3.3.2 Coaxial Cable 67 3.3.3 Fiber-Optic Cable 67 3.3.4 Radio 69 3.3.5 Microwave 69 3.3.6 Satellite 70 3.3.7 Media Selection 71 3.4 Digital Transmission of Digital Data 72 3.4.1 Coding 72 3.4.2 Transmission Modes 73 3.4.3 Digital Transmission 74 3.4.4 How Ethernet Transmits Data 75 3.5 Analog Transmission of Digital Data 76 3.5.1 Modulation 77 3.5.2 Capacity of a Circuit 79 3.5.3 How Modems Transmit Data 80 3.6 Digital Transmission of Analog Data 80 3.6.1 Translating from Analog to Digital 80 3.6.2 How Telephones Transmit Voice Data 81 3.6.3 How Instant Messenger Transmits Voice Data 83 3.6.4 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) 83 3.7 Implications for Management 84 Chapter 4 Data Link Layer 92 4.1 Introduction 92 4.2 Media Access Control 93 4.2.1 Contention 93 4.2.2 Controlled Access 93 4.2.3 Relative Performance 94 4.3 Error Control 95 4.3.1 Sources of Errors 96 4.3.2 Error Prevention 97 4.3.3 Error Detection 98 4.3.4 Error Correction via Retransmission 99 4.3.5 Forward Error Correction 102 4.3.6 Error Control in Practice 102 4.4 Data Link Protocols 103 4.4.1 Asynchronous Transmission 103 4.4.2 Synchronous Transmission 104 4.5 Transmission Efficiency 107 4.6 Implications for Management 109 Chapter 5 Network and Transport Layers 116 5.1 Introduction 116 5.2 Transport and Network Layer Protocols 118 5.2.1 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 118 5.2.2 Internet Protocol (IP) 119 5.3 Transport Layer Functions 120 5.3.1 Linking to the Application Layer 120 5.3.2 Segmenting 121 5.3.3 Session Management 122 5.4 Addressing 124 5.4.1 Assigning Addresses 124 5.4.2 Address Resolution 130 5.5 Routing 132 5.5.1 Types of Routing 134 5.5.2 Routing Protocols 135 5.5.3 Multicasting 137 5.5.4 The Anatomy of a Router 138 5.6 TCP/IP Example 140 5.6.1 Known Addresses, Same Subnet 140 5.6.2 Known Addresses, Different Subnet 143 5.6.3 Unknown Addresses 144 5.6.4 TCP Connections 144 5.6.5 TCP/IP and Network Layers 145 5.7 Implications for Management 147 PART THREE NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES 166 Chapter 6 Network Design 166 6.1 Introduction 166 6.1.1 Network Architecture Components 166 6.1.2 The Traditional Network Design Process 168 6.1.3 The Building-Block Network Design Process 169 6.2 Needs Analysis 171 6.2.1 Network Architecture Component 172 6.2.2 Application Systems 173 6.2.3 Network Users 173 6.2.4 Categorizing Network Needs 173 6.2.5 Deliverables 174 6.3 Technology Design 175 6.3.1 Designing Clients and Servers 175 6.3.2 Designing Circuits 175 6.3.3 Network Design Tools 177 6.3.4 Deliverables 178 6.4 Cost Assessment 178 6.4.1 Request for Proposal 178 6.4.2 Selling the Proposal to Management 179 6.4.3 Deliverables 180 6.5 Implications for Management 180 Chapter 7 Wired and Wireless Local Area Networks 184 7.1 Introduction 184 7.2 LAN Components 185 7.2.1 Network Interface Cards 186 7.2.2 Network Circuits 186 7.2.3 Network Hubs, Switches, and Access Points 187 7.2.4 Network Operating Systems 190 7.3 Wired Ethernet 191 7.3.1 Topology 191 7.3.2 Media Access Control 194 7.3.3 Types of Ethernet 195 7.4 Wireless Ethernet 196 7.4.1 Topology 196 7.4.2 Media Access Control 196 7.4.3 Wireless Ethernet Frame Layout 197 7.4.4 Types ofWireless Ethernet 198 7.4.5 Security 199 7.5 The Best Practice LAN Design 201 7.5.1 Designing User Access withWired Ethernet 202 7.5.2 Designing User Access withWireless Ethernet 202 7.5.3 Designing the Data Center 204 7.5.4 Designing the e-Commerce Edge 206 7.5.5 Designing the SOHO Environment 207 7.6 Improving LAN Performance 208 7.6.1 Improving Server Performance 209 7.6.2 Improving Circuit Capacity 210 7.6.3 Reducing Network Demand 211 7.7 Implications for Management 211 Chapter 8 Backbone Networks 222 8.1 Introduction 222 8.2 Switched Backbones 223 8.3 Routed Backbones 226 8.4 Virtual LANs 229 8.5 The Best Practice Backbone Design 234 8.6 Improving Backbone Performance 236 8.6.1 Improving Device Performance 236 8.6.2Improving Circuit Capacity 236 8.6.3 Reducing Network Demand 236 8.7 Implications for Management 237 Chapter 9 Wide Area Networks 245 9.1 Introduction 245 9.2 Dedicated-Circuit Networks 246 9.2.1 Basic Architecture 246 9.2.2 T Carrier Services 249 9.2.3 SONET Services 251 9.3 Packet-Switched Networks 251 9.3.1 Basic Architecture 252 9.3.2 Frame Relay Services 253 9.3.3 Ethernet Services 254 9.3.4 MPLS Services 255 9.3.5 IP Services 256 9.4 Virtual Private Networks 257 9.4.1 Basic Architecture 257 9.4.2 VPN Types 258 9.4.3 How VPNsWork 258 9.5 The Best PracticeWAN Design 261 9.6 ImprovingWAN Performance 262 9.6.1 Improving Device Performance 262 9.6.2 Improving Circuit Capacity 263 9.6.3 Reducing Network Demand 263 9.7 Implications for Management 264 Chapter 10 The Internet 276 10.1 Introduction 276 10.2 How the InternetWorks 277 10.2.1 Basic Architecture 277 10.2.2 Connecting to an ISP 279 10.2.3 The Internet Today 280 10.3 Internet Access Technologies 281 10.3.1 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) 281 10.3.2 Cable Modem 283 10.3.3 Fiber to the Home 285 10.3.4 WiMax 285 10.4 The Future of the Internet 286 10.4.1 Internet Governance 286 10.4.2 Building the Future 287 10.5 Implications for Management 289 PART FOUR NETWORK MANAGEMENT 296 Chapter 11 Network Security 296 11.1 Introduction 296 11.1.1 Why Networks Need Security 298 11.1.2 Types of SecurityThreats 298 11.1.3 Network Controls 300 11.2 Risk Assessment 301 11.2.1 Develop risk measurement criteria 301 11.2.2 Inventory IT assets 302 11.2.3 Identify Threats 304 11.2.4 Document Existing Controls 307 11.2.5 Identify Improvements 308 11.3Ensuring Business Continuity 308 11.3.1 Virus Protection 309 11.3.2 Denial of Service Protection 310 11.3.3 Theft Protection 313 11.3.4 Device Failure Protection 313 11.3.5 Disaster Protection 314 11.4 Intrusion Prevention 318 11.4.1 Security Policy 319 11.4.2Perimeter Security and Firewalls 319 11.4.3 Server and Client Protection 325 11.4.4 Encryption 329 11.4.5 User Authentication 335 11.4.6 Preventing Social Engineering 338 11.4.7 Intrusion Prevention Systems 339 11.4.8 Intrusion Recovery 341 11.5 Best Practice Recommendations 342 11.6 Implications for Management 344 Chapter 12 Network Management 353 12.1 Introduction 353 12.2 Designing for Network Performance 355 12.2.1 Managed Networks 355 12.2.2 Managing Network Traffic 359 12.2.3 Reducing Network Traffic 360 12.3 Configuration Management 363 12.3.1 Configuring the Network and Client Computers 363 12.3.2 Documenting the Configuration 364 12.4 Performance and Fault Management 366 12.4.1 Network Monitoring 366 12.4.2 Failure Control Function 368 12.4.3 Performance and Failure Statistics 370 12.4.4 Improving Performance 373 12.5 End User Support 373 12.5.1 Resolving Problems 373 12.5.2 Providing End User Training 375 12.6 Cost Management 375 12.6.1 Sources of Costs 375 12.6.2 Reducing Costs 378 12.7 Implications for Management 380 Appendices (Online) Glossary (Online) Index 389

About the Author

Dr. Jerry FitzGerald is the principal in Jerry FitzGerald & Associates, which he started in 1977. He received his Ph.D. in business economics and master's degree in business economics from the Claremont Graduate School, an MBA from the University of Santa Clara, and a B.A. in industrial engineering from Michigan State University. Alan R. Dennis is currently a professor at the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University, where he holds the John T. Chambers Chair of Internet Systems, which honors John Chambers, the founder of Cisco Systems and a groundbreaking developer in networking technology. He has written numerous books on data communication, system design, and networking, and he is the publisher of MIS Quarterly, a scholarly quarterly lodged in the Information Systems department at Indiana University.

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