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Clinical Guide to Fish Medicine
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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments List of Contributors SECTION A - Chapter A1 - Anatomy and Taxonomy o A1.1 Introduction o A1.2 Anatomy of Bony Fish A1.2.1 Body Plan A1.2.2 Integument A1.2.3 Musculoskeletal System A1.2.4 Buoyancy Organs A1.2.5 Adipose Tissue A1.2.6 Ocular Anatomy A1.2.7 Auditory Anatomy A1.2.8 Olfactory and Gustatory Anatomy A1.2.9 Oral/Pharyngeal Cavity A1.2.10 Gastrointestinal System A1.2.11 Liver and Gallbladder A1.2.12 Respiratory System A1.2.13 Cardiovascular System A1.2.14 Lymphomyeloid System A1.2.15 Endocrine System A1.2.16 Urogenital System A1.2.17 Neurologic System o A1.3 Anatomy of Cartilaginous Fish A1.3.1 Body Plan A1.3.2 Integument A1.3.3 Musculoskeletal System A1.3.4 Buoyancy Organs A1.3.5 Ocular Anatomy A1.3.6 Auditory Anatomy A1.3.7 Olfactory and Gustatory Anatomy A1.3.8 Oral/Pharyngeal Cavity A1.3.9 Gastrointestinal System A1.3.10 Liver and Gallbladder A1.3.11 Respiratory System A1.3.12 Cardiovascular System A1.3.13 Hematopoietic and Immunologic System A1.3.14 Endocrine System A1.3.15 Urogenital System A1.3.16 Neurologic System o A1.4 Taxonomy A1.4.1 Taxonomy of Bony Fish (Osteichthyes) A1.4.1 Taxonomy of Cartilaginous Fish (Chondrichthyes) - Chapter A2: Water Quality o A2.1 Introduction o A2.2 Water Source o A2.3 Dissolved Oxygen o A2.4 Total Gas Pressures o A2.5 Temperature o A2.6 Salinity and Salt Composition o A2.7 Nitrogenous Wastes (Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate) o A2.8 pH o A2.9 Alkalinity and Hardness o A2.10 Carbon Dioxide o A2.11 Chlorines and Chloramines o A2.12 Iodide and Iodate o A2.13 Heavy Metals o A2.14 Turbidity/Suspended Solids o A2.15 Microbiome and Bacterial Testing o A2.16 Water Quality Testing Options o A2.17 Conclusion - Chapter A3: Life Support Systems o A3.1 Introduction o A3.2 Bacteria and other Microorganisms o A3.3 System Type o A3.4 Oxygenation and Gas Exchange o A3.5 Water Flow o A3.6 Mechanical Filtration A3.6.1 Surface Skimming A3.6.2 Prefilters A3.6.3 Sand/Canister/Bead filters A3.6.4 Settling/Sedimentation Tanks A3.6.5 Foam Fractionators A3.6.6 Activated Carbon A3.6.7 Flocculation A3.6.8 Mechanical Filtration Trouble-Shooting o A3.7 Biological Filtration and Nitrification A3.7.1 Biological Filtration Trouble-Shooting o A3.8 Denitrification o A3.9 Ecological Scrubbers o A3.10 Water Disinfection A3.10.1 Ultraviolet Light Disinfection A3.10.2 Ozone Disinfection o A3.11 Temperature Control o A3.12 Noise and Vibration o A3.13 Lighting o A3.14 Other Life-Support Equipment o A3.15 Pond Life-Support o A3.16 Coral Reef Life-Support o A3.17 Conclusion - Chapter A4 - Nutrition and Nutritional Support o A4.1 Introduction o A4.2 Natural History A4.2.1 Wild Diet and Foraging Ecology A4.2.2 Metabolism and Energetics A4.2.3 Anatomy and Digestion o A4.3 Nutrient Requirements A4.3.1 Sources of Energy A4.3.2 Protein A4.3.3 Lipid A4.3.4 Carbohydrates A4.3.5 Vitamins A4.3.6 Minerals A4.3.7 Other Additives A4.3.8 Nutrient Choice o A4.4 Feeding A4.4.1 Diet Selection and Formulation A4.4.2 Food Types A4.4.3 Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation o A4.4.4 Feeding Behavior, Amount, and Frequency A4.4.5 Body Condition o A4.5 Food Storage and Preparation A4.5.1 Food Safety and Monitoring A4.5.2 Storage A4.5.3 Food Preparation A4.5.4 Quality Control o A4.6 Nutritional Support A4.6.1 Appetite Stimulants A4.6.2 Assisted Feeding o A4.7 Larval and Broodstock Nutrition o A4.8 New Directions in Fish Nutrition Research - Chapter A5 - Fish Behavior: Training and Enrichment o A5.1 Introduction o A5.2 Fish Abilities o A5.3 Benefits of Behavioral Management o A5.4 Introduction to the Science of Learning o A5.5 Before Training Begins o A5.6 Getting Started with Training o A5.7 Basic Training o A5.8 Beyond Basic Training (Other Reasons to Train) o A5.9 Modifying Problem Behaviors o A5.10 Conclusion - Chapter A6 - Clinical Examination o A6.1 Introduction o A6.2 History o A6.3 Clinical Examination A6.3.1 Observation A6.3.2 Transport Considerations A6.3.3 Handling Considerations A6.3.4 Manual Restraint A6.3.5 Chemical Restraint A6.3.6 Components of the Physical Examination o A6.4 Individual Identification o A6.5 Diagnostic Sampling A6.5.1 Skin Scrapes A6.5.2 Gill Biopsies A6.5.3 Fin Biopsies A6.5.4 Fecal Collection A6.5.5 Diagnostic Imaging A6.5.6 Blood Collection A6.5.7 Musculoskeletal Impression Smears, Aspirates, or Biopsies A6.5.8 Coelomic Aspirates or Biopsies A6.5.9 Periocular and Ocular Aspirates A6.5.10 Cerebrospinal Fluid Collection A6.5.11 Egg or Sperm Collection o A6.6 Commercial Laboratories - Chapter A7 - Clinical Pathology o A7.1 Introduction o A7.2 Reference Materials in Fish Medicine o A7.3 Wet Mount Examinations A7.3.1 Skin Scrapes A7.3.2 Gill Biopsies/Gill Clips A7.3.3 Fin Biopsies/Fin Clips A7.3.4 Fecal Wet Mounts A7.3.5 Tissue Wet Mounts/Squash Preparations o A7.4 Cytologic Examination A7.4.1 Factors that Affect the Diagnostic Quality of Stained Cytologies A7.4.2 Cytologic Sample Evaluation o A7.5 Histopathology o A7.6 Hematology A7.6.1 Hematologic Sample Processing A7.6.2 Hematologic Sample Evaluation A7.6.3 Special Stains for Hematology o A7.7 Blood Biochemistry A7.7.1 Biochemistry Sample Processing A7.7.2 Biochemistry Sample Evaluation o A7.8 Toxicologic and Nutritional Analyses A7.8.1 Toxicology A7.8.2 Vitamin and Mineral Analysis o A7.9 Microbiology A7.9.1 Bacteriology A7.9.2 Virology o A7.10 Molecular Diagnostics A7.10.1 Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods A7.10.2 DNA Sequencing o A7.11 Immunohistochemistry o A7.12 In Situ Hybridization o A7.13 Antibody-Based Testing A7.13.1 Fluorescent Antibody Testing A7.13.2 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) o A7.14 Conclusion - Chapter A8 - Diagnostic Imaging o A8.1 Introduction o A8.2 Conventional Radiography A8.2.1 Radiographic Safety A8.2.2 Plain Radiography A8.2.3 Contrast Radiography A8.2.4 Interventional Radiography o A8.3 Computed Tomography o A8.4 Magnetic Resonance Imaging o A8.5 Ultrasonography o A8.6 Common Abnormalities Identified with Diagnostic Imaging A8.6.1 Spinal Pathology A8.6.2 Swim Bladder Pathology A8.6.3 Skin and Pouch Pathology in Syngnathids A8.6.4 Gastrointestinal Pathology A8.6.5 Hepatic Pathology A8.6.6 Reproductive Pathology o A8.7 Conclusion - Chapter A9 - Necropsy and Ancillary Diagnostics o A9.1 Introduction o A9.2 Specimen Selection A9.2.1 Euthanasia of Fish o A9.3 Human Safety o A9.4 Equipment Needed o A9.5 Gross Necropsy A9.5.1 Ancillary Diagnostics A9.5.2 External Examination A9.5.3 Gill, Skin, and Fin Wet Mounts A9.5.4 Necropsy Approach A9.5.5 Examination In Situ A9.5.6 Organ Evaluation A9.5.7 Organ Wet Mounts and Impression Smears A9.5.8 Sample Storage and Bio-artifacts A9.5.9 Disposal o A9.6 Histology A9.6.1 Fixatives A9.6.2 Samples A9.6.3 Shipping A9.6.4 Processing and Stains A9.6.5 Histopathologic Interpretation o A9.7 Conclusion - Chapter A10 - Anesthesia and Analgesia o A10.1 Introduction o A10.2 Anatomical and Physiological Considerations A10.2.1 Respiratory Systems A10.2.2 Skin and Muscle A10.2.3 Temperature and Metabolism o A10.3 Water Quality Considerations A10.3.1 Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature A10.3.2 pH and Nitrogenous Waste A10.3.3 Ionic Balance o A10.4 Anesthetic Techniques and Drugs A10.4.1 Human Safety A10.4.2 Preanesthetic Preparation A10.4.3 Anesthetic Drug Administration and Agents o A10.5 Monitoring, Support, Recovery, and Resuscitation A10.5.1 Anesthetic Depth A10.5.2 Cardiopulmonary Activity A10.5.3 Water Quality Monitoring A10.5.4 Recovery A10.5.5 Resuscitation o A10.6 Analgesia o A10.7 Euthanasia - Chapter A11 - Surgery and Endoscopy o A11.1 Introduction o A11.2 General Surgical Principles A11.2.1 Preparation of the Patient A11.2.2 Instrumentation and Visualization A11.2.3 Suture A11.2.4 Post-operative Management o A11.3 Surgical Procedures A11.3.1 External Mass Excision/Biopsy A11.3.2 Ophthalmic Surgery A11.3.3 Pseudobranch Ablation A11.3.4 Coeliotomy o A11.4 General Endoscopy Principles A11.4.1 Rigid Endoscopy Instrumentation A11.4.2 Rigid Endoscope Handling and Use A11.4.3 Endosurgery A11.4.4 Flexible Endoscopy o A11.5 Endoscopic Procedures A11.5.1 Gill Endoscopy and Stomatoscopy A11.5.2 Gastroscopy A11.5.3 Cloacoscopy A11.5.4 Coelioscopy A11.5.5 Pneumocystoscopy A11.5.6 Biopsy Sample Handling A11.5.7 Endosurgical Procedures o A11.6 Conclusion - Chapter A12 - Medical Treatment o A12.1 Introduction o A12.2 Environmental Options o A12.3 Routes of Administration A12.3.1 Injectable A12.3.2 Oral A12.3.3 Immersion A12.3.4 Topical A12.3.5 Other Routes o A12.4 Commonly Used Medical Treatments A12.4.1 Antibiotics A12.4.2 Antiparasitics A12.4.3 Antifungals A12.4.4 Antivirals A12.4.5 Anti-inflammatories A12.4.6 Hormones o A12.5 Vaccines o A12.6 Immune Stimulants o A12.7 Critical Care A12.7.1 Resuscitation of a Non-responsive Fish A12.7.2 Fluid Therapy o A12.8 Legislation A12.8.1 International Legislation A12.8.2 Legislation in the United States A12.8.3 Legislation in Europe o A12.9 Conclusion - Chapter A13 - Environmental Considerations of Immersion Medications o A13.1 Introduction o A13.2 Impacts of Water Chemistry on Immersion Medication o A13.3 Effects of Water Clarification and Disinfection on Immersion Medications o A13.4 Effects of Immersion Medications on the Biological Filtration o A13.5 Microbiome Effects o A13.6 Effects on Target and Non-target Species o A13.7 Medication Assays o A13.8 Diving or Swimming in Medicated Water o A13.9 Disposal of Medicated Water A13.9.1 Discharge to Municipal Sanitary Sewer A13.9.2 Discharge to a Natural Body of Water A13.9.3 Return to the Institution's Water System A13.9.4 Biotic or Abiotic Removal or Destruction of the Medication A13.9.5 Transfer to an Evaporation Pond o A13.10 Record-keeping o A13.11 Specific Drug Examples A13.11.1 Formalin A13.11.2 Trichlorfon or Metrifonate A13.11.3 Praziquantel A13.11.4 Copper Sulfate, Chelated Copper A13.11.5 Chloroquine - Chapter A14 - Acquisition and Transport o A14.1 Introduction o A14.2 Source and Sustainability A14.2.1 Cultured or Previously Wild-Caught Fish A14.2.2 Recently Wild-Caught Fish o A14.3 General Principles of Acquisition and Transport o A14.4 Preparation A14.4.1 Risk Assessment A14.4.2 Pre-shipment Conditioning A14.4.3 Mock Transports A14.4.4 Feeding and Fasting o A14.5 Catch and Handling Recommendations A14.5.1 Aquarium or Pond Bony Fish A14.5.2 Aquarium Cartilaginous Fish A14.5.3 Free-ranging Bony Fish A14.5.4 Free-ranging Cartilaginous Fish o A14.6 Transport Containers A14.6.1 Shipping Bags A14.6.2 Rigid Transport Containers A14.6.3 Additives A14.6.4 Temperature Control A14.6.5 Filtration and Monitoring Systems A14.6.6 Staffing and Medical Intervention o A14.7 Transport Options A14.7.1 By Road A14.7.2 By Air A14.7.3 By Boat A14.7.4 By Parcel Carrier o A14.8 Acclimation on Arrival o A14.9 Legislation o A14.10 Conclusion - Chapter A15 - Quarantine o A15.1 Introduction o A15.2 Critical Components A15.2.1 Acquisition Planning A15.2.2 Isolation and Biosecurity A15.2.3 Environmental Conditions A15.2.4 Close Monitoring A15.2.5 Diagnostics and Treatments A15.2.6 Accurate Records o A15.3 Risk Assessment Approach A15.3.1 Example 1: Quarantine of Koi for an Established Koi Pond A15.3.2 Example 2: Quarantine of Neon Tetras for a New Home Aquarium A15.3.3 Example 3: Quarantine of a Group of Tropical Marine Teleosts for a Display Aquarium A15.3.4 Example 4: Quarantine of Pelagic, Ram-ventilating Shark for a Display Aquarium A15.3.5 Example 5: Quarantine of Tilapia for an Established Tilapia Culture Facility o A15.4 Training and Enrichment o A15.5 'Failing' Quarantine o A15.6 Clearing Quarantine o A15.7 Reviewing Quarantine Results SECTION B Presenting Problems - B1 Acute Mortalities in a Group - B2 Respiratory or Cardiovascular Signs o B2.1 Dyspnea and Tachypnea o B2.2 Gill Pallor - B3 Cutaneous Signs o B3.1 Red/Erosive Skin Lesions o B3.2 White Skin Lesions o B3.3 Dark Skin Lesions o B3.4 Pruritus - B4 Gastrointestinal or Coelomic Signs o B4.1 Inappetence, Weight Loss o B4.2 Coelomic Distension o B4.3 Dental Disease o B4.4 Cloacal/Anal Distension or Prolapse - B5 Musculoskeletal or Neurologic Signs o B5.1 Spinal Deformity o B5.2 External Masses o B5.3 Circling or Spiraling o B5.4 Positive Buoyancy o B5.5 Negative Buoyancy - B6 Ocular Signs o B6.1 Exophthalmos or Buphthalmos o B6.2 Ocular Opacity SECTION C - C1 Non-Infectious Diseases (Environmental) o C1.1 Low Dissolved Oxygen o C1.2 Gas Supersaturation o C1.3 Barotrauma o C1.4 Temperature Stress o C1.5 pH Stress o C1.6 Ammonia Toxicity o C1.7 Nitrite Toxicity o C1.8 Nitrate Toxicity o C1.9 Chlorine and Chloramine Toxicity o C1.10 Heavy Metal Toxicity o C1.11 Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity o C1.12 Organophosphate and Carbamate Toxicity - C2 Non-Infectious Diseases (Other) o C2.1 Physical Trauma o C2.2 Electrical Trauma o C2.3 Exertional Myopathy o C2.4 Lateral Line Depigmentation o C2.5 Thyroid Hyperplasia (Goiter) o C2.6 Mucometra and Ovarian Cysts o C2.7 Egg Retention or Egg Binding o C2.8 Dystocia o C2.9 Cataracts o C2.10 Lipid Keratopathy (Corneal Lipidosis) o C2.11 Obesity o C2.12 Micronutrient Deficiency o C2.13 Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies o C2.14 Neoplasia - C3 Viral Diseases o C3.1 Viral Diseases (General) o C3.2 Cyprinid Herpesviruses o C3.3 Ictalurid Herpesviruses o C3.4 Rhabdoviruses o C3.5 Birnaviruses o C3.6 Pox Viruses o C3.7 Lymphocystiviruses o C3.8 Ranaviruses o C3.9 Megalocytiviruses o C3.10 Orthomyxoviruses o C3.11 Betanodaviruses - C4 Bacterial Diseases o C4.1 Bacterial Diseases (General) o C4.2 Aeromonas salmonicida o C4.3 Motile Aeromonad Septicemia o C4.4 Vibriosis o C4.5 Enteric Septicemia of Catfish o C4.6 Edwardsiellosis o C4.7 Columnaris and Flexibacteriosis o C4.8 Flavobacterium psychrophilum o C4.9 Yersiniosis o C4.10 Streptococcosis o C4.11 Renibacterium salmoninarum o C4.12 Mycobacteriosis o C4.13 Nocardiosis o C4.14 Epitheliocystis o C4.15 Francisellosis o C4.16 Piscirickettsiosis - C5 Fungal and Fungal-Like Diseases o C5.1 Oomycota (Saprolegniasis) o C5.2 Exophiala spp. o C5.3 Fusarium spp. o C5.4 Microsporidia o C5.5 Mesomycetozoa (DRIPs) - C6 Protozoal Diseases o C6.1 Ichthyophthirius multifiliis o C6.2 Cryptocaryon irritans o C6.3 Chilodonella spp. o C6.4 Brooklynella spp. o C6.5 Scuticociliates o C6.6 Trichodinids o C6.7 Sessile Ciliates o C6.8 Cryptobia spp. o C6.9 Ichthyobodo spp. o C6.10 Spironucleus and Hexamita spp. o C6.11 Amyloodinium and Piscinoodinium spp. o C6.12 Amoebic Gill Disease - C7 Metazoan Diseases o C7.1 Monogeneans (General) o C7.2 Capsalid Monogeneans o C7.3 Dactylogyrid Monogeneans o C7.4 Gyrodactylid Monogeneans o C7.5 Monocotylid Monogeneans o C7.6 Microbothriid Monogeneans o C7.7 Polyopisthocotyle Monogeneans o C7.8 Digenes (Excluding Blood Flukes) o C7.9 Digenes (Blood Flukes) o C7.10 Turbellaria o C7.11 Cestodes o C7.12 Leeches o C7.13 Ascarid Nematodes o C7.14 Camallanid Nematodes o C7.15 Philometrid Nematodes o C7.16 Anguillicolid Nematodes o C7.17 Trichosomonoidid Nematodes o C7.18 Pentastomids o C7.19 Acanthocephalans o C7.20 Copepods o C7.21 Isopods o C7.22 Branchiurans - C8 Myxozoan and Coccidial Diseases o C8.1 Myxozoan (General) o C8.2 Enteromyxum spp. o C8.3 Henneguya spp. o C8.4 Myxobolus spp. o C8.5 Ceratonova and Ceratomyxa spp. o C8.6 Hoferellus spp. o C8.7 Kudoa spp. o C8.8 Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae o C8.9 Eimeria spp. o C8.10 Cryptosporidium spp. - Appendices o Appendix 1 - Conversions o Appendix 2 - Common Disinfectants o Appendix 3 - Fish Diagnostic Laboratories in the USA, by state o Appendix 4 - Veterinary Training Programs in Aquatic Animal Medicine

About the Author

The editors Catherine Hadfield, MA, VetMB, MRCVS, DACZM, DECZM, is the Senior Veterinarian at the Seattle Aquarium in Seattle, Washington, USA. Leigh Clayton, DVM, DABVP (avian practice and amphibian and reptile practice), eMBA, is the Vice President of Animal Care at the New England Aquarium in Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

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