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Coal-Bearing Depositional Systems


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Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 2 The Conditions of Peat Formation.- 2.1 Peatland Ecology.- 2.1.1 Coastal Marshes and Swamps.- The Marine Influence on Peat Accumulation.- The Influence of Marine Transgressions and Regressions.- 2.1.2 Fresh-Water Peatlands.- Upper Delta and Alluvial Plain Swamps, Marshes and Bogs.- Limnic Environments.- 2.2 Peat Composition and Peat-Forming Plants.- 2.3 Climate and Peat Accretion.- 2.4 Evolutionary Trends in Peat and Coal Formation.- 3 The Coalification Process.- 3.1 Biochemical Coalification.- 3.1.1 The Vitrinitisation Path.- 3.1.2 The Fusinitisation Path.- 3.1.3 Plant-Specific Coal Components.- 3.2 Physico-Chemical Coalification.- 3.2.1 The Concept of Coal Rank.- Solubility in Alkali Hydroxides.- Moisture Content and Specific Energy.- Volatile Matter and Fixed Carbon.- Elemental Carbon.- Vitrinite Reflectance and Other Physical Rank Parameters.- 3.2.2 The Effects of Pressure, Temperature and Time.- 4 Coal Petrographic Entities.- 4.1 Macerals.- 4.1.1 The Huminite/Vitrinite Group.- The Humotelinite/Telovitrinite Subgroup.- The Humodetrinite/Detrovitrinite Subgroup.- The Humocollinite/Gelovitrinite Subgroup.- 4.1.2 The Inertinite Group.- The Telo-Inertinite Subgroup.- The Detro-Inertinite Subgroup.- The Gelo-Inertinite Subgroup.- 4.1.3 The Liptinite Group.- Primary Liptinites.- Secondary Liptinites.- 4.1.4 Maceral Analysis.- 4.2 Microlithotypes.- 4.2.1 Microlithotype Analyses.- 4.2.2 The Relationship Between Microlithotypes and Macerals.- 4.3 Lithotypes.- 4.3.1 Lithotype Analysis.- 4.3.2 The Relationship Between Lithotypes, Macerals and Microlithotypes.- 4.4 Minerals.- 4.4.1 Phytogenic Minerals.- 4.4.2 Adventitious Minerals.- Silicate Minerals.- Silica Minerals.- Carbonate Minerals.- Phosphate Minerals.- Sulphide Minerals.- 4.4.3 Mineral Analysis.- 5 Coal Facies and Depositional Environment.- 5.1 Phyterals and Macerals in Palaeo-Environmental Analysis.- 5.1.1 Botanical Attributes of Macerals.- The Topogenous Model of Densosporinite Formation.- The Ombrogenous Model of Densosporinite Formation.- Densosporinite as Part of a Sedimentary Sequence.- 5.1.2 Scalar Properties of Macerals.- The Tissue Preservation Index.- The Gelification Index.- 5.2 Microlithotypes as Tools in Palaeo-Environmental Analysis.- 5.2.1 Microlithotype Proportions and Bandwidth.- 5.2.2 Hacquebard's Double Triangle.- 5.3 Lithotypes as Palaeo-Environmental Indicators.- 5.3.1 Black Coal Lithotypes.- 5.3.2 Brown Coal Lithotypes.- 5.4 Optical Properties as Palaeo-Environmental Indicators.- 5.4.1 Vitrinite Fluorescence.- 5.4.2 Vitrinite Reflectance and Other Rank Parameters.- 5.5 Geochemical Palaeo-Environmental Signatures.- 5.5.1 Elements of Palaeo-Environmental Significance.- Sulphur.- Boron.- Other Elements.- 5.5.2 Organic Geochemical Characteristics.- Alkanes.- Fatty Acids.- Isoprenoids.- Heterocyclic Compounds.- Aromatic Compounds.- Amino Acids.- 5.6 Epiclastic Minerals and Palaeo-Environments.- 5.7 Summary of Palaeo-Environmental Indicators.- 6 The Relationship Between Coal and Interseam Sediments.- 6.1 Some Characteristics and Properties of Interseam Sediments.- 6.1.1 Single Particles.- Origin and Composition of Single Particles.- Particle Size.- Particle Shape and Roundness.- 6.1.2 Depositional Fabric.- Classification of Fabric Elements.- Types of Aggregation.- Symmetry Relationships.- 6.1.3 Coal Measure Structures.- Stratification.- Bed Undulations.- Cross-Stratification.- Surface and Sole Markings.- 6.1.4 Coal Measure Lithosomes.- Natural Gamma-Ray Log.- Density (Gamma-Gamma) Log.- Neutron-Neutron Log.- Caliper Log.- Sonic Properties.- Resistivity Log.- Spatial Attitude.- Combination Tools.- Data Management.- 6.2 Coal Seams and Their Floor Rocks.- 6.3 Coal Seams and Their Roof Rocks.- 6.3.1 Concordant Coal/Roof Couples.- Abrupt Contacts Between Coal and Roof Rocks.- Gradational Contacts Between Coal and Roof Rocks.- 6.3.2 Discordant Coal/Roof Couples.- Coal/Roof Discordance Due to Unequal Loading..- Coal/Roof Discordance Due to Erosion.- 6.4 Coal Seam Splitting.- 6.4.1 Seam Splitting Due to Differential Subsidence.- 6.4.2 Seam Splitting Due to Autosedimentational Causes.- 7 Coal-Producing Sedimentary Environments.- 7.1 The Braid Plain.- 7.1.1 The Gravelly Braid Plain.- 7.1.2 The Sandy Braid Plain.- 7.1.3 The Coals of the Braid Plain.- 7.2 The Alluvial Valley and Upper Delta Plain.- 7.2.1 The Point Bar.- 7.2.2 The Flood Plain.- 7.2.3 The Flood Basin.- 7.2.4 The Coals of the Alluvial Valley and Upper Delta Plain.- 7.3 The Lower Delta Plain.- 7.3.1 The Prodelta.- 7.3.2 The Delta Front.- 7.3.3 The Distributary Channel.- 7.3.4 The Interdistributary Bay.- 7.3.5 The Coals of the Lower Delta Plain.- 7.4 The Barrier Beach/Strand-Plain System.- 7.4.1 The Offshore Transition Zone.- 7.4.2 The Shoreface.- 7.4.3 The Foreshore.- 7.4.4 TheBackshore.- 7.4.5 The Tidal Inlet.- 7.4.6 The Backbarrier.- 7.4.7 Marine Transgression (Barrier Retrogradation).- 7.4.8 Marine Regression (Barrier Progradation).- 7.4.9 The Coals of the Backbarrier Strand-Plain System.- 7.5 The Estuary.- 7.5.1 Present and Past Estuarine Deposits.- 7.5.2 The Coals of the Estuarine System.- 8 Coal Formation and Sequence Stratigraphy.- 8.1 Basic Concepts of Sequence Stratigraphy.- 8.2 Sequence-Stratigraphic Time and Space Constraints on Coal Formation.- 8.3 The Influence of Sequence-Stratigraphic Settings on Coal Formation.- 8.3.1 Properties of Transgressive Coal Seams with a Marine Roof.- Chemical Signatures of Transgressive Coals with a Marine Roof.- Mineralogical Signatures of Transgressive Coals with a Marine Roof.- Petrographic Signatures of Transgressive Coals with a Marine Roof.- 8.3.2 Properties of Transgressive Coal Seams Without a Marine Roof.- 8.3.3 Properties of Coal Seams Formed During Marine Regression.- 8.4 Sequence Stratigraphic Interpretation of Coal Seam Settings.- 9 Coal-Producing Tectonic Environments.- 9.1 Early Examples of a Tectonic Classification of Coalfields.- 9.2 Basin Formation as Part of Plate Tectonics.- 9.3 Coalfields Situated Near Convergent Plate Edges.- 9.3.1 Molasse Foredeeps Associated with Subduction Zone Continental Margins.- The Sunda Arc.- The Sydney Basin.- The Rocky Mountains Foredeep.- 9.3.2 Molasse Foredeeps Associated with Continental Collision Margins.- 9.3.3 Coal-Bearing Intradeeps.- 9.3.4 Coal-Bearing Transtensional Lateral Basins.- 9.4 Coalfields Situated Near Divergent Plate Edges.- 9.4.1 The Kinematics of Continental Rifting.- 9.4.2 Coal Formation in Rift Valleys.- 9.4.3 Coal Formation in Nascent Continental Margin Settings.- 9.5 Coalfields on Midplate Continental Margins.- 9.5.1 Coalfields of Mobile Shelf Basins.- 9.5.2 Coalfields on Stable Shelf Margins.- 9.6 Coalfields of the Continental Interior.- 9.6.1 Epeirogenic Coal Basins.- 9.6.2 Coalfields Associated with Wrench Faults.- 9.6.3 Coal Formation in Non-Tectonic Basins.- 10 Concluding Remarks.- References.- Author Index.

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