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Developmental Neuroscience


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Table of Contents

List of Illustrations xi Preface xv Acknowledgments xix What Are Investigative Reading Questions? xxi Teaching Using the Primary Literature and Investigative Reading Questions to Complement the Text xxiii Chapter 1 Introduction* What Do We Mean When We Say "Neural Development"? 1 * What Is in This Book and How to Use It 1 * Methods for Studying Development of the Nervous System 3 * Human Brain Imaging 17 * The Future 19 * Notes 20 * Investigative Reading 20 Chapter 2 Overview of Nervous System Development in Humans* How Do We Know What We Know? 23 * Start by Working Backward 24 * The Carnegie Stages of Embryonic Development 26 * Development of the Fetal Brain 31 * Neural Tube Defects 33 * Notes 34 * Investigative Reading 35 Chapter 3 Animal Models* Model Organisms 37 * Some Helpful Concepts for Thinking about Animal Models 38 * Practical Considerations 40 * The Mouse, Mus musculus 41 * The Zebrafi sh, Danio rerio 44 * The Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster 48 * The Nematode Worm, Caenorhabditis elegans 52 * Typical Neurons 55 * Gray Matter and White Matter 57 * Phylogenetic Relationships 57 * Notes 60 * Investigative Reading 61 Chapter 4 Early Events* Axis Determination and Neural Induction 63 * Defining Anterior and Making a Head 63 * Neural Induction 74 * Notes 77 * Investigative Reading 79 Chapter 5 Neurogenesis* Production of Neurons by Neural Progenitors 81 * Neurogenesis in C. elegans 83 * Neurogenesis in Drosophila 88 * Neurogenesis in Zebrafi sh 97 * Neurogenesis in the Mouse 99 * Neurogenesis in Humans 106 * Adult Neurogenesis 110 * Notes 116 * Investigative Reading 118 Chapter 6 Later Events* Not All Animals Are Segmented 121 * Regionalization in the Drosophila Nervous System 121 * Regionalization in the Vertebrate Nervous System 128 * Histogenesis of the Mammalian Cortex 135 * Notes 140 * Investigative Reading 141 Chapter 7 Becoming a Neuron* Axons, Dendrites, and the Formation of Synapses 143 * The Decision to Grow a Process 145 * Microtubules, Actin, and Growth Cones 147 * Axon Path Finding 152 * Synaptogenesis 160 * Notes 164 * Investigative Reading 166 Chapter 8 Glia* Glia and Neurons 169 * Glia in C. elegans 170 * Glia in Drosophila 171 * Glia in Zebrafish 176 * Glia in Mice 179 * Glia in Humans 189"li>Fruit Flies and Glioblastoma 192 * Notes 194 * Investigative Reading 195 Chapter 9 Maturation* Growing Up 197 * Metamorphosis 197 * Adolescence 206 * Summary 209 * Notes 210 * Investigative Reading 211 Chapter 10 Thinking about Intellectual Disability in the Context of Development* Neuroscience and Intellectual Disability 213 * Perturbations of Neuronal Migration 215 * Dendritic Abnormalities 219 * Neonatal Hypothyroidism 221 * Rett Syndrome 222 * Fragile X Syndrome 225 * Down Syndrome 228 * Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 231 * Nonmammalian Models 234 * Reality Check 237 * Notes 238 * Investigative Reading 239 Abbreviations 241 References 251 Online Resources 271 Full Citations for Investigative Reading Exercises 277 Index 281

About the Author

Susan E. Fahrbach is the Reynolds Professor of Developmental Neuroscience in the Department of Biology at Wake Forest University.


"Written with a rare lucidity and grace, Susan Fahrbach's Developmental Neuroscience offers a systematic and logical account of the development of nerve cells and nervous systems, human and otherwise. The book is lecture friendly and the supplementary reading questions are ideal for college courses. It will be of surpassing interest to professors seeking a current treatment of developmental neuroscience."-Donald Pfaff, Rockefeller University and editor of Neuroscience in the 21st Century
"The words 'delightful textbook' do not often occur together but they describe Developmental Neuroscience to a tee. Susan Fahrbach has an exceptional voice and, coupled with a deep scholarly bent, a keen ability for explaining the importance of developmental phenomena and how we come to understand them. There is much that is new here even for longtime instructors of the subject. This is a truly valuable addition to the field."-Darcy Kelley, Columbia University
"Developmental Neuroscience is an elegantly written take on a subject rooted in classical embryology but now yielding to the contemporary tools of molecular genetics and neuroimaging. Fahrbach's approach is patient and steady, surveying the current state of understanding through humans and different model organisms, with a sensitive ear to the cultural issues and contexts that will inform and motivate students."-David Clayton, Queen Mary, University of London
"This is the ideal textbook for students who want to think about particular big-picture topics and engage with the primary literature. With simple language, good points, interesting anecdotes, big ideas, and nice tie-in questions, the book provides broad brushstrokes on important issues, which then allows students, through guided discussion, to delve into specific developmental processes or signaling pathways."-Christopher Korey, College of Charleston

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