Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) was a diplomat, politician, and philosopher of the Italian Renaissance. Modern political philosophy and political science is founded on Machiavelli's writings. He served for many years as a senior official in the Florentine Republic with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. When the Medicis came to power, he was imprisoned and then retired to the writing of his works of political philosophy. Harvey C. Mansfield is the William R. Kenan Jr. Professor of Government at Harvard University. He is the author of Machiavelli's Virtue and has translated The Prince, Discourses on Livy (with Nathan Tarcov), and Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America (with Delba Winthrop), all published by the University of Chicago Press.