List of Contributors x About the Companion Website xvii Introduction: What is Point-of-Care Ultrasound? 1 James A. Connolly, Anthony J. Dean, Beatrice Hoffmann and Robert D. Jarman Part 1 Physics 5 1 How Does Ultrasound Work? 7 Heather Venables Part 2 Ultrasound by Region 13 Thorax 14 2 Evaluation of the Chest Wall, Pleura and Lung 15 Gebhard Mathis and Anthony J. Dean 3 Point-of-Care Ultrasonography of the Thoracic Aorta 32 R. Andrew Taylor and Christopher L. Moore 4 Anatomy/Ultrasonography of the Heart 39 Conn Russell 5 Basic Point-of-Care Echocardiography: Interpretation and Haemodynamic Assessment 47 Craig Morris 6 Beyond Basic Point-of-Care Echocardiography 56 Sean Bennett Abdomen 69 7 Ultrasound Assessment of the Abdominal Aorta in the Acute Setting 71 Simon Richards 8 Focussed Assessment with Sonography in Trauma - The FAST Exam 83 Rajat Gangahar 9 Advanced Gastrointestinal Ultrasound: Identifying Appendicitis, Pneumoperitoneum, Intussusception and Diverticulitis 101 Beatrice Hoffmann and Sara Damewood 10 Intravascular Volume Assessment by Ultrasound Evaluation of the Inferior Vena Cava 115 Anthony J. Dean 11 Emergency Ultrasound in First-Trimester Pregnancy 126 Andrew M. Kestler and John L. Kendall 12 Second- and Third-Trimester Pregnancy 143 Elena Skomorovsky, John Gullett and David C. Pigott 13 Gynaecological Ultrasound in Emergency Medicine: The Non-Pregnant Female Patient with Abdomino-Pelvic Pain 152 Martha Villalba and Michael Lambert 14 Focused Hepatobiliary Ultrasound 162 Resa Lewiss 15 Renal Ultrasound 175 Lisa Munro Davies 16 Ultrasound Evaluation of the Acute Scrotum 194 J. Matthew Fields Extremities 203 17 The Lower Limb and the Upper Limb 205 David Lewis and John Gullett 18 Ultrasonography of Deep Venous Thrombosis 221 Joshua S. Rempell and Vicki E. Noble 19 Transcranial Doppler 233 John Gullett 20 Ocular Ultrasound 241 Anumeha Singh and Dietrich von Kuenssberg Jehle 21 Airway/Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Sonography 251 Barton Brown and Srikar Adhikari Part 3 Paediatrics 259 22 Paediatric Musculoskeletal Point-of-Care Ultrasound 261 Paul Atkinson and Peter Ross 23 Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care 270 Mahmoud A. Elbarbary 24 Paediatric Abdominal Ultrasound 280 Jennifer R. Marin Part 4 Adjunct to Practical Procedures 287 25 Ultrasound-Guided Vascular Access 289 Nova L. Panebianco 26 Pericardiocentesis, Paracentesis and Thoracentesis 296 David B. Richards 27 Suprapubic Aspiration and Catheterisation 302 Fernando Silva 28 Ultrasound in the Management of Fractures 307 Paul Atkinson and Peter Ross 29 Ultrasound-Guided (USG) Peripheral Nerve Block (PNB) 314 Jens Borglum and Kenneth Jensen 30 Foreign Body and Abscess 331 Erskine J. Holmes 31 Ultrasound of the Airway 337 Christopher T. Wall, Seth R. Strote, Liberty V. Caroon and Robert F. Reardon Part 5 Syndromic Approach 347 32 Chest Pain and Dyspnea 349 Lawrence A. Melniker 33 Bedside Ultrasound as an Adjunct in the Evaluation and Management of Critically Ill Patients 355 Anthony J. Dean and Sarah A. Stahmer 34 Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Resuscitation and Cardiac Arrest: The FEEL Protocol 371 Elena Costantini, Peter M. Zechner, Frank Heringer, Colleen Cuca, Felix Walcher and Raoul Breitkreutz 35 Non-Invasive Haemodynamics 375 Erik Sloth, Christian Alcaraz Frederiksen and Peter Juhl-Olsen 36 Doppler Assessment of Haemodynamics 379 Brendan E. Smith and Veronica M. Madigan 37 Algorithmic Bedside Approach to the Major Trauma Patient in Extremis 386 Robert Arntfield and Andrew W. Kirkpatrick 38 A Syndromic Approach with Sonography to the Patient with Abdominal Pain 392 Jonathan Fischer and Pablo Aguillera 39 A Syndromic Approach to the Pregnant Patient 400 Joseph Wood 40 The Use of Ultrasound in Evaluating Dyspnoea/Respiratory Distress in Infants and Children 404 Roberto Copetti and Luigi Cattarossi 41 Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Human Immune-Deficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) Co-Infection: The FASH Scan 410 Hein Lamprecht 42 Fever and Ultrasound 418 Gabriel Simon and Beatrice Hoffmann Part 6 Different Environments 423 43 The Role of Ultrasound in Pre-Hospital Care 425 Tim Harris, Adam Bystrzycki and Stefan M. Mazur Appendix A1: Selected Protocols for Cardiac and Critical Care Ultrasound 440 44 Use of Ultrasound in Extreme or Hostile Environments (Online only) 454 Kenton Anderson 45 Setting Up an Ultrasound Programme in Underdeveloped Healthcare Systems (Online only) 462 Hein Lamprecht and John Sloan Part 7 Administration (Online only) 471 46 Best Practice and Future Developments in Point-of-Care Ultrasound (Online only) 473 Robert D. Jarman 47 The Role of Phantoms and Simulation in Teaching Ultrasound Skills in Emergency Medicine (Online only) 479 Mike Wells and Lara Goldstein 48 Ultrasound in Undergraduate Medical Education (Online only) 487 Richard A. Hoppmann 49 Departmental Implementation: Setting up an Ultrasound Training Programme for Medical Students - Experience of Two Universities (Online only) 493 David C. Wherry and Mark W. Bowyer 50 Future of Point-of-Care Ultrasound (Online only) 503 Michael Blaivas Appendix A2: Normal Ultrasound Values (Online only) 506 Phil Johnstone Index 511
James A. Connolly, MBBS, FRCS (ed), FRCS (Glas), FCEM, CFEU is a Consultant in Emergency Medicine at Great North Trauma and Emergency Care Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Anthony J. Dean, MD is a Professor of Emergency Medicine and of Emergency Medicine in Radiology; and the Director of the Division of Emergency Ultrasonography at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Beatrice Hoffmann, MD, PhD, RDMS is Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Ultrasound Division Director, and Emergency Physician at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Robert D. Jarman, MBBS, MSc(Medical Ultrasound), FRCS(Ed), FRCEM(UK), FRCP(Ed), CFEU is a Consultant in Emergency Medicine at Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Visiting Professor and MSc Point-of-Care Ultrasound Lead at University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, UK.