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Foundations of College Chemistry
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Table of Contents

1 An Introduction to Chemistry 1 1.1 The Nature of Chemistry 2 Thinking Like a Chemist 2 1.2 A Scientific Approach to Problem Solving 3 Chemistry in action Egyptians, the First Medicinal Chemists 4 The Scientific Method 4 1.3 The Particulate Nature of Matter 5 Physical States of Matter 6 1.4 Classifying Matter 7 Distinguishing Mixtures from Pure Substances 9 Review 10 Review Questions 11 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises 11 Answers to Practice Exercises 13 2 Standards for Measurement 14 2.1 Scientific Notation 15 2.2 Measurement and Uncertainty 16 2.3 Significant Figures 17 Rounding Off Numbers 18 2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations 19 Multiplication or Division 19 Addition or Subtraction 20 2.5 The Metric System 22 Measurement of Length 23 Unit Conversions 24 Measurement of Mass 25 Chemistry in action Keeping Track of Units 26 Measurement of Volume 26 2.6 Dimensional Analysis: A Problem-Solving Method 27 2.7 Percent 31 2.8 Measurement of Temperature 34 Chemistry in action Setting Standards 35 2.9 Density 37 Review 40 Review Questions 41 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 41 Answers to Practice Exercises 47 3 Elements and Compounds 48 3.1 Elements 49 Natural States of the Elements 49 Distribution of Elements 50 Names of the Elements 51 Symbols of the Elements 51 Chemistry in action Naming Elements 52 3.2 Introduction to the Periodic Table 53 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids 54 Diatomic Elements 55 Chemistry in action Smartphone Elements 56 3.3 Compounds and Formulas 56 Molecular and Ionic Compounds 57 Writing Formulas of Compounds 58 Composition of Compounds 60 Review 62 Review Questions, Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 63 Answers to Practice Exercises 67 4 Properties of Matter 68 4.1 Properties of Substances 69 Chemistry in action Making Money 70 4.2 Physical and Chemical Changes 71 4.3 Learning to Solve Problems 74 4.4 Energy 74 Energy in Chemical Changes 75 Conservation of Energy 76 4.5 Heat: Quantitative Measurement 76 4.6 Energy in the Real World 78 Chemistry in action Popping Popcorn 79 Review 81 Review Questions 82 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 82 Answers to Practice Exercises 85 5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure 86 5.1 Dalton's Model of the Atom 87 5.2 Electric Charge 88 Discovery of Ions 88 5.3 Subatomic Parts of the Atom 89 5.4 The Nuclear Atom 91 General Arrangement of Subatomic Particles 92 Atomic Numbers of the Elements 93 5.5 Isotopes of the Elements 93 Chemistry in action Isotope Detectives 95 5.6 Atomic Mass 95 Review 97 Review Questions 98 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 98 Answers to Practice Exercises 101 6 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds 102 6.1 Common and Systematic Names 103 6.2 Elements and Ions 103 Chemistry in action What's in a Name? 105 6.3 Writing Formulas from Names of Ionic Compounds 107 6.4 Naming Binary Compounds 109 Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal Forming Only One Type of Cation 109 Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Can Form Two or More Types of Cations 110 Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals 112 6.5 Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 113 6.6 Acids 115 Binary Acids 115 Naming Oxy-Acids 116 Review 118 Review Questions 119 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 120 Answers to Practice Exercises 122 7 Quantitative Composition of Compounds 123 7.1 The Mole 124 7.2 Molar Mass of Compounds 128 7.3 Percent Composition of Compounds 131 Percent Composition from Formula 132 Chemistry in action Feeling the Molecular Heat? 134 Percent Composition from Experimental Data 134 7.4 Calculating Empirical Formulas 135 7.5 Calculating the Molecular Formula from the Empirical Formula 138 Review 141 Review Questions 142 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 142 Answers to Practice Exercises 146 8 Chemical Equations 147 8.1 The Chemical Equation 148 Conservation of Mass 149 8.2 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 149 Information in a Chemical Equation 154 8.3 Why Do Chemical Reactions Occur? 155 8.4 Types of Chemical Equations 155 Synthesis (Combination) Reaction 155 Chemistry in Action CO Poisoning-A Silent Killer 156 Combustion Reaction 157 Decomposition Reaction 157 Single-Displacement Reaction 158 Double-Displacement Reaction 159 8.5 Heat in Chemical Reactions 161 8.6 Climate Change: The Greenhouse Effect 164 Chemistry in action Decreasing Carbon Footprints 166 Review 167 Review Questions 169 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercise 169 Answers to Practice Exercises 174 9 Calculations from Chemical Equations 175 9.1 Introduction to Stoichiometry 176 A Short Review 176 9.2 Mole-Mole Calculations 178 9.3 Mole-Mass Calculations 181 9.4 Mass-Mass Calculations 182 9.5 Limiting Reactant and Yield Calculations 184 Chemistry in action A Shrinking Technology 185 Review 190 Review Questions 191 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 191 Answers to Practice Exercises 195 10 Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 196 10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 197 Electromagnetic Radiation 197 Chemistry in action You Light Up My Life 198 10.2 The Bohr Atom 198 10.3 Energy Levels of Electrons 200 Chemistry in action Atomic Clocks 202 10.4 Atomic Structures of the First 18 Elements 203 10.5 Electron Structures and the Periodic Table 206 Chemistry in action Collecting the Elements 207 Review 212 Review Questions 213 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 213 Answers to Practice Exercises 217 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 218 11.1 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 219 Metals and Nonmetals 219 Atomic Radius 220 Ionization Energy 220 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 222 11.3 The Ionic Bond: Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 223 11.4 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds 228 11.5 The Covalent Bond: Sharing Electrons 230 11.6 Electronegativity 232 Chemistry in Action Trans-forming Fats 234 11.7 Lewis Structures of Compounds 235 Chemistry in Action Strong Enough to Stop a Bullet? 238 11.8 Complex Lewis Structures 239 11.9 Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 240 11.10 Molecular Shape 241 The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model 241 Review 245 Review Questions 247 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 247 Answers to Practice Exercises 252 12 The Gaseous State of Matter 253 12.1 Properties of Gases 254 Measuring the Pressure of a Gas 254 Pressure Dependence on the Number of Molecules and the Temperature 256 Chemistry in action What the Nose Knows 257 12.2 Boyle's Law 258 12.3 Charles' Law 261 12.4 Avogadro's Law 264 12.5 Combined Gas Laws 266 Mole-Mass-Volume Relationships of Gases 268 12.6 Ideal Gas Law 269 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory 271 Real Gases 272 Chemistry in action Air Quality 273 12.7 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures 272 12.8 Density of Gases 275 12.9 Gas Stoichiometry 276 Mole-Volume and Mass-Volume Calculations 276 Volume-Volume Calculations 278 Review 280 Review Questions 282 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 282 Answers to Practice Exercises 287 13 Liquids 288 13.1 States of Matter: A Review 289 13.2 Properties of Liquids 289 Surface Tension 289 Evaporation 290 Vapor Pressure 291 13.3 Boiling Point and Melting Point 292 Chemistry in Action Chemical Eye Candy 294 13.4 Changes of State 294 13.5 Intermolecular Forces 296 Dipole-Dipole Attractions 296 The Hydrogen Bond 297 Chemistry in Action How Sweet It Is! 299 London Dispersion Forces 300 13.6 Hydrates 301 13.7 Water, a Unique Liquid 303 Physical Properties of Water 303 Chemistry in Action Reverse Osmosis? 304 Structure of the Water Molecule 304 Sources of Water for a Thirsty World 305 Review 306 Review Questions 307 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 311 Answers to Practice Exercises 311 14 Solutions 312 14.1 General Properties of Solutions 313 14.2 Solubility 314 The Nature of the Solute and Solvent 315 The Effect of Temperature on Solubility 316 The Effect of Pressure on Solubility 317 Saturated, Unsaturated, and Supersaturated Solutions 317 14.3 Rate of Dissolving Solids 318 14.4 Concentration of Solutions 319 Dilute and Concentrated Solutions 320 Mass Percent Solution 320 Mass/Volume Percent (m/v) 322 Volume Percent 322 Molarity 322 Dilution Problems 326 14.5 Colligative Properties of Solutions 327 14.6 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure 332 Chemistry in action The Scoop on Ice Cream 331 Review 334 Review Questions 335 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 336 Answers to Practice Exercises 342 15 Acids, Bases, and Salts 343 15.1 Acids and Bases 344 Chemistry in action Drug Delivery: An Acid-Base Problem 347 Acid Reactions 348 Base Reactions 348 15.2 Salts 348 Chemistry in action A Cool Fizz 349 15.3 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 350 Dissociation and Ionization of Electrolytes 350 Strong and Weak Electrolytes 352 Ionization of Water 354 15.4 Introduction to pH 355 15.5 Neutralization 357 15.6 Writing Net Ionic Equations 360 Chemistry in action Ocean Corals Threatened by Increasing Atmospheric CO2 Levels 362 Review 363 Review Questions 364 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 364 Answers to Practice Exercises 367 16 Chemical Equilibrium 368 16.1 Rates of Reaction 369 16.2 Chemical Equilibrium 370 Reversible Reactions 370 16.3 Le Chatelier's Principle 372 Effect of Concentration on Equilibrium 372 Chemistry in Action New Ways in Fighting Cavities and Avoiding the Drill 374 Effect of Volume on Equilibrium 375 Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium 377 Effect of Catalysts on Equilibrium 378 16.4 Equilibrium Constants 378 16.5 Ion Product Constant for Water 380 16.6 Ionization Constants 382 16.7 Solubility Product Constant 384 16.8 Buffer Solutions: The Control of pH 387 Chemistry in Action Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood 388 Review 390 Review Questions 391 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 392 Answers to Practice Exercises 396 17 Oxidation-Reduction 397 17.1 Oxidation Number 398 Oxidation-Reduction 401 17.2 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 402 17.3 Balancing Ionic Redox Equations 406 17.4 Activity Series of Metals 409 17.5 Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells 411 Review 415 Review Questions 417 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 418 Answers to Practice Exercises 422 18 Nuclear Chemistry 423 18.1 Discovery of Radioactivity 424 Natural Radioactivity 425 18.2 Alpha Particles, Beta Particles, and Gamma Rays 427 Alpha Particles 427 Beta Particles 428 Gamma Rays 428 18.3 Radioactive Disintegration Series 430 Transmutation of Elements 431 Artificial Radioactivity 432 Transuranium Elements 432 18.4 Measurement of Radioactivity 432 18.5 Nuclear energy 434 Nuclear Fission 434 Chemistry in Action Does Your Food Glow in the Dark? 434 Nuclear Power 436 The Atomic Bomb 437 Nuclear Fusion 438 18.6 Mass-Energy Relationship in Nuclear Reactions 439 18.7 Biological Effects of Radiation 440 Acute Radiation Damage 440 Long-Term Radiation Damage 440 Genetic Effects 440 Chemistry in Action A Window into Living Organisms 441 Review 442 Review Questions 443 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises Challenge Exercises 444 Answers to Practice Exercises 446 19 Introduction to Organic Chemistry (online only) 447 19.1 The Beginnings of Organic Chemistry 448 19.2 Why Carbon? 448 Hydrocarbons 450 19.3 Alkanes 451 Structural Formulas and Isomerism 451 Naming Alkanes 454 19.4 Alkenes and Alkynes 458 Naming Alkenes and Alkynes 458 Reactions of Alkenes 461 Addition 461 19.5 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 462 Naming Aromatic Compounds 463 Monosubstituted Benzenes 463 Disubstituted Benzenes 463 Tri- and Polysubstituted Benzenes 464 19.6 Hydrocarbon Derivatives 465 Alkyl Halides 466 19.7 Alcohols 467 Methanol 468 Ethanol 469 Naming Alcohols 470 19.8 Ethers 471 Naming Ethers 472 19.9 Aldehydes and Ketones 473 Naming Aldehydes 474 Naming Ketones 474 19.10 Carboxylic Acids 476 19.11 Esters 478 Chemistry in action Getting Clothes CO2 Clean! 479 19.12 Polymers-Macromolecules 480 Review 482 Review Questions 484 Paired Exercises, Additional Exercises 485 Answers to Practice Exercises 489 20 Introduction to Biochemistry (online only) 491 20.1 Chemistry in Living Organisms 492 20.2 Carbohydrates 492 Monosaccharides 492 Disaccharides 494 Polysaccharides 496 20.3 Lipids 497 20.4 Amino Acids and Proteins 501 Chemistry in action The Taste of Umami 505 20.5 Enzymes 506 20.6 Nucleic Acids, DNA, and Genetics 508 DNA and Genetics 512 Review 514 Review Questions and Exercises 515 Answers to Practice Exercises 517 Appendices A1 1 Mathematical and Review A1 2 Units of Measurement A10 3 Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures A11 4 Solubility Table A12 5 Answers to Selected Exercises A13 Glossary G1 Index I1

About the Author

Morris Hein is the author of Foundations of College Chemistry, Binder Ready Version, 15th Edition, published by Wiley. Susan Arena is the author of Foundations of College Chemistry, Binder Ready Version, 15th Edition, published by Wiley.

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