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Handbook of Large Turbo-Generator Operation and Maintenance


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Table of Contents

Preface. Acknowledgments. I. THEORY, CONSTRUCTION, AND OPERATION. 1. Principles of Operation of Synchronous Machines. 1.1 Introduction to Basic Notions on Electric Power. 1.2 Electrical-Mechanical Equivalence. 1.3 Alternating Current (ac). 1.4 Three-Phase Circuits. 1.5 Basic Principles of Machine Operation. 1.6 The Synchronous Machine. 1.7 Basic Operation of the Synchronous Machine. 2. Generator Design and Construction. 2.1 Stator Core. 2.2 Stator Frame. 2.3 Flux and Armature Reaction. 2.4 Electromagnetics. 2.5 End-Region Effects and Flux Shielding. 2.6 Stator Core and Frame Forces. 2.7 Stator Windings. 2.8 Stator Winding Wedges. 2.9 End-Winding Support Systems. 2.10 Stator Winding Configurations. 2.11 Stator Terminal Connections. 2.12 Rotor Forging. 2.13 Rotor Winding. 2.14 Rotor Winding Slot Wedges. 2.15 Amor isseur winding. 2.16 Retaining Rings. 2.17 Bore Copper and Terminal Connectors. 2.18 Slip-Collector Rings and Brush Gear. 2.19 Rotor Shrink Coupling. 2.20 Rotor Turning Gear. 2.21 Bearings. 2.22 Air and Hydrogen Cooling. 2.23 Rotor Fans. 2.24 Hydrogen Containment. 2.25 Hydrogen Coolers. References. 3. Generator Auxiliary Systems. 3.1 Lube-Oil System. 3.2 Hydrogen Cooling System. 3.3 Seal-Oil System. 3.4 Stator Cooling Water System. 3.5 Exciter Systems. 4. Operation and Control. 4.1 Basic Operating Parameters. 4.2 Operating Modes. 4.3 Machine Curves. 4.4 Special Operating Conditions. 4.5 Basic Operation Concepts. 4.6 System Considerations. 4.7 Grid-Induced Torsional Vibrations. 4.8 Excitation and Voltage Regulation. 4.9 Performance Curves. 4.10 Sample of Generator Operating Instructions. References. 5. Monitoring and Diagnostics. 5.1 Generator Monitoring Philosophies. 5.2 Simple Monitoring with Static High-Level Alarm Limits. 5.3 Dynamic Monitoring with Load-Varying Alarm Limits. 5.4 Artificial Intelligence Diagnostic Systems. 5.5 Monitored Parameters. References. 6. Generator Protector. 6.1 Basic Protection Philosophy. 6.2 Generator Protective Functions. 6.3 Brief Description of Protective Functions. 6.4 Specialized Protection Schemes. 6.5 Tripping and Alarming Methods. References. II. INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND TESTING. 7. Inspection Practices and Methodology. 7.1 Site Preparation. 7.2 Experience and Training. 7.3 Safety procedures?Electrical Clearances. 7.4 Inspection Frequency. 7.5 Generator Accessibility. 7.6 Inspection Tools. 7.7 Inspection Forms. References. 8. Stator Inspection. 8.1 Stator Frame and Casing. 8.2 Stator Core. 8.3 Stator Windings. 8.4 Phase Connectors and Terminals. 8.5 Hydrogen Coolers. References. Additional Reading. 9. Rotor Inspection. 9.1 Rotor Cleanliness. 9.2 Retaining Rings. 9.3 Fretting/Movement at Interference Fit Surfaces of Wedges and Rings. 9.4 Centering (Balance) Rings. 9.5 Fan Rings or Hubs. 9.6 Fan Blades. 9.7 Bearings and Journals. 9.8 Balance Weights and Bolts. 9.9 End Wedges and Damper Windings. 9.10 Other Wedges. 9.11 Windings?General. 9.12 Rotor Windings?Slot Region. 9.13 End Windings and Main Leads. 9.14 Collector Rings. 9.15 Collector Ring Insulation. 9.16 Bore Copper and Radial (Vertical) Terminal Stud Connectors. 9.17 Brush-Spring Pressure and General Condition. 9.18 Brush Rigging. 9.19 Shaft Voltage Discharge (Grounding) Brushes. 9.20 Rotor Winding Main Lead Hydrogen Sealing?Inner and Outer. 9.21 Circumferential Pole Slots (Body Flex Slots). 9.22 Blocked Rotor Radial Vent Holes?Shifting of Winding and/or Insulation. 9.23 Couplings and Coupling Bolts. 9.24 Bearing Insulation. 9.25 Hydrogen Seals. 9.26 Rotor-Body Zone Rings. 9.27 Rotor Removal. References. 10. Auxiliaries Inspection. 10.1 Lube-Oil System. 10.2 Hydrogen Cooling System. 10.3 Seal-Oil System. 10.4 Stator Cooling Water System. 10.5 Exciters. 11. Generator Maintenance Testing. 11.1 Stator Core Mechanical tests. 11.2 Stator Core Electrical tests. 11.3 Stator Winding Mechanical Tests. 11.4 Water-Cooled Stator Winding Tests. 11.5 Stator winding Electrical Tests. 11.6 Rotor Mechanical Testing. 11.7 Rotor Electrical Testing. 11.8 Hydrogen Seals. 11.9 Bearings. 11.10 Thermal Sensitivity Testing and Analysis. 11.11 Heat-Run Testing. 11.12 Hydrogen Leak Detection. References. 12. Maintenance. 12.1 General Maintenance Philosophies. 12.2 Operational and Maintenance History. 12.3 Maintenance Intervals/Frequency. 12.4 Types of Maintenance. 12.5 Work Site Location. 12.6 Workforce. 12.7 Spare Parts. 12.8 Uprating. 12.9 Long-Term Storage and Mothballing. 12.10 Life Cycle Management (LCM). 12.11 Single Point Vulnerability (SPV) Analysis. References. Index.

About the Author

Geoff Klempner, BASc , is a large generator specialist, residing in Toronto, Canada.He has served on numerous IEEE committees and standards working groups for large generators and is also a contributor to CIGRE on large rotating electrical machines. Isidor Kerszenbaum, PhD , is an IEEE Fellow, residing in Irvine, California. He is a generator specialist consulting to power plants on operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of large motors and generators.

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