Susan M. Brookhart, PhD, is an independent educational consultant based in Helena, Montana. She has taught both elementary and middle school. She was professor and chair of the Department of Educational Foundations and Leadership at Duquesne University, where she currently serves as an adjunct professor. She has been the education columnist for National Forum, the journal of Phi Kappa Phi, and editor of Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, a journal of the National Council on Measurement in Education. She is the author or coauthor of several books, including ASCD's How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students and How to Create and Use Rubrics for Formative Assessment and Grading. She is the coauthor, with Connie M. Moss, of ASCD's Advancing Formative Assessment in Every Classroom: A Guide for Instructional Leaders, Formative Classroom Walkthroughs: Assessment in Every Classroom and Learning Targets: Helping Students Aim for Understanding in Today's Lesson. She was named the 2014 Jason Millman Scholar by the Consortium for Research on Educational Effectiveness and Teaching Effectiveness (CREATE) and received the 2015 Samuel J. Messick Lecture Award from ETS/TOEFL.