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Jacaranda Outcomes 2 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education HSC 6e eBookPLUS & Print + StudyON HSC PDHPE 2e (Book Code)
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How to use this book x About eBookPLUS and studyON xi Acknowledgements xii HSC Core 1 Health Priorities in Australia 1 1 How are priority issues for Australia's health identified? 3 1.1 Measuring health status 5 1.1.1 Role of epidemiology 5 1.1.2 Measures of epidemiology 7 1.2 Identifying priority health issues 15 1.2.1 Social justice principles 16 1.2.2 Priority population groups 17 1.2.3 Prevalence of condition 17 1.2.4 Potential for prevention and early intervention 18 1.2.5 Costs to the individual and community 19 1.3 Topic review 21 1.3.1 Summary 21 1.3.2 Questions 21 1.3.3 Key terms 22 2 What are the priority issues for improving Australia's health? 23 2.1 Groups experiencing health inequities 24 2.1.1 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 25 2.1.2 Socioeconomically disadvantaged people 29 2.1.3 People in rural and remote areas 30 2.1.4 Overseas-born people 32 2.1.5 The elderly 33 2.1.6 People with disabilities 35 2.2 High levels of preventable chronic disease, injury and mental health problems 37 2.2.1 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) 38 2.2.2 Cancer 44 2.2.3 Injury 54 2.2.4 Mental health problems and illnesses 59 2.2.5 Diabetes 67 2.2.6 Respiratory disease 71 2.3 A growing and ageing population 76 2.3.1 Healthy ageing 77 2.3.2 Increased population living with chronic disease and disability 78 2.3.3 Demand for health services and workforce shortages 80 2.3.4 Availability of carers and volunteers 80 2.4 Topic review 81 2.4.1 Summary 81 2.4.2 Questions 82 2.4.3 Key terms 83 3 Role of health-care facilities and services in achieving better health 85 3.1 Health care in Australia 86 3.1.1 Range and types of health-care facilities and services 87 3.1.2 Responsibility for health-care facilities and services 92 3.1.3 Equity of access to health facilities and services 94 3.1.4 Health-care expenditure versus early intervention and prevention expenditure 97 3.1.5 Impact of emerging new treatments and technologies on health care 101 3.1.6 Health insurance: Medicare and private 104 3.2 Complementary and alternative health-care approaches 108 3.2.1 Reasons for the growth of complementary and alternative health products and services 109 3.2.2 Range of products and services available 110 3.2.3 How to make informed consumer choices 112 3.3 Topic review 113 3.3.1 Summary 113 3.3.2 Questions 114 3.3.3 Key terms 115 4 Actions required to address Australia's health priorities 117 4.1 Levels of responsibility for health promotion 118 4.2 Benefits of partnerships in health promotion 122 4.3 How health promotion based on the Ottawa Charter promotes social justice 125 4.3.1 Developing personal skills 126 4.3.2 Creating supportive environments 127 4.3.3 Strengthening community action 128 4.3.4 Reorienting health services 129 4.3.5 Building healthy public policy 130 4.4 The Ottawa Charter in action 130 4.4.1 National Tobacco Strategy 2012-18 131 4.4.2 Head to Health Initiative 2017 136 4.5 Topic review 142 4.5.1 Summary 142 4.5.2 Questions 142 4.5.3 Key terms 142 HSC Core 2 Factors Affecting Performance 143 5 How does training affect performance? 145 5.1 Energy systems 146 5.1.1 Alactacid system (ATP/PC) 148 5.1.2 Lactic acid system 152 5.1.3 Aerobic system 155 5.2 Types of training and training methods 159 5.2.1 Aerobic training 160 5.2.2 Anaerobic training 163 5.2.3 Flexibility training 165 5.2.4 Strength training 169 5.3 Principles of training 174 5.3.1 Progressive overload 174 5.3.2 Specificity 176 5.3.3 Reversibility 178 5.3.4 Variety 178 5.3.5 Training thresholds 178 5.3.6 Warm-up and cool-down 181 5.4 Physiological adaptations in response to training 182 5.4.1 Resting heart rate 182 5.4.2 Stroke volume 183 5.4.3 Cardiac output 184 5.4.4 Oxygen uptake 184 5.4.5 Lung capacity 186 5.4.6 Haemoglobin level 186 5.4.7 Muscle hypertrophy 187 5.4.8 Effect on fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres 188 5.5 Topic review 190 5.5.1 Summary 190 5.5.2 Questions 191 5.5.3 Key terms 193 6 Psychology and performance 195 6.1 Psychology and sports performance 196 6.2 Motivation 196 6.2.1 Positive motivation 197 6.2.2 Negative motivation 198 6.2.3 Intrinsic motivation 198 6.2.4 Extrinsic motivation 199 6.3 Anxiety and arousal 201 6.3.1 Trait anxiety 201 6.3.2 State anxiety 202 6.3.3 Sources of stress 202 6.3.4 Optimum arousal 203 6.4 Psychological strategies to enhance motivation and manage anxiety 207 6.4.1 Concentration/attention skills (focusing) 207 6.4.2 Mental rehearsal/visualisation/imagery 209 6.4.3 Relaxation techniques 210 6.4.4 Goal setting 212 6.5 Topic review 214 6.5.1 Summary 214 6.5.2 Questions 215 6.5.3 Key terms 216 7 Nutrition, recovery strategies and performance 217 7.1 Nutritional considerations 218 7.1.1 Pre-performance 218 7.1.2 During performance 224 7.1.3 Post-performance 227 7.2 Supplementation 229 7.2.1 Vitamins 229 7.2.2 Minerals 229 7.2.3 Protein 231 7.2.4 Caffeine 232 7.2.5 Creatine products 232 7.3 Recovery strategies 233 7.3.1 Physiological strategies 234 7.3.2 Neural strategies 237 7.3.3 Tissue damage strategies 238 7.3.4 Psychological strategies 239 7.4 Topic review 242 7.4.1 Summary 242 7.4.2 Questions 243 7.4.3 Key terms 243 8 Skill and performance 245 8.1 Stages of skill acquisition 246 8.1.1 Cognitive stage 246 8.1.2 Associative stage 247 8.1.3 Autonomous stage 248 8.2 Characteristics of the learner 249 8.2.1 Personality 249 8.2.2 Heredity 250 8.2.3 Confidence 252 8.2.4 Prior experience 253 8.2.5 Ability 253 8.3 The learning environment 255 8.3.1 The nature of skill 255 8.3.2 Performance elements 259 8.3.3 Practice methods 263 8.3.4 Feedback 265 8.4 Assessment of skill and performance 269 8.4.1 Characteristics of skilled performers 269 8.4.2 Objective and subjective performance measures 272 8.4.3 Personal versus prescribed judging criteria 275 8.5 Topic review 278 8.5.1 Summary 278 8.5.2 Questions 279 8.5.3 Key terms 280 Options 283 9 The health of young people 285 9.1 What is good health for young people? 286 9.1.1 The nature of young people's lives 286 9.1.2 Epidemiology of the health of young people 292 9.1.3 Effects of the determinants of health on young people 296 9.1.4 Developmental aspects that affect the health of young people 308 9.2 To what extent do Australia's young people enjoy good health? 314 9.2.1 Mental health problems and illnesses 315 9.2.2 Body image 321 9.2.3 Alcohol consumption 325 9.2.4 Violence 328 9.2.5 Road safety 331 9.2.6 Sexual health 334 9.2.7 Other relevant and emerging health issues 337 9.2.8 Gambling 337 9.2.9 Cyberbullying 339 9.2.10 Party crashes 340 9.2.11 Drink spiking 341 9.3 What skills and actions enable young people to attain better health? 343 9.3.1 Building positive self-concepts 343 9.3.2 Developing a sense of connectedness 344 9.3.3 Developing resilience and coping skills 347 9.3.4 Developing health literacy and accessing skills 350 9.3.5 Developing communication skills 352 9.3.6 Accessing health services 352 9.3.7 Community service and involvement 353 9.3.8 Creating a sense of future 354 9.3.9 Actions targeting health issues relevant to young people 358 9.4 Topic review 362 9.4.1 Summary 362 9.4.2 Questions 363 9.4.3 Key terms 364 10 Sport and physical activity in Australian society 367 10.1 How have the meanings about sport and physical activity changed over time? 368 10.1.1 Beginnings of modern sport in nineteenth-century England and colonial Australia 368 10.1.2 Sport as a commodity 374 10.2 What is the relationship between sport and national and cultural identity? 384 10.2.1 Australian sporting identity 384 10.2.2 Meaning of physical activity and sport to Indigenous Australians 395 10.2.3 Physical activity, sport and cultural identity 397 10.3 How does the mass media contribute to people's understanding, values and beliefs about sport? 399 10.3.1 Relationship between sport and the mass media 399 10.3.2 Deconstructing media messages, images and amount of coverage 402 10.4 What are the relationships between sport and physical activity and gender? 406 10.4.1 Sport as a traditionally male domain 406 10.4.2 Challenges to the male domain 411 10.5 Topic review 411 10.5.1 Summary 411 10.5.2 Questions 412 10.5.3 Key terms 413 11 Sports medicine 415 11.1 Classifying and managing sports injuries 416 11.1.1 Ways to classify sports injuries 416 11.1.2 Soft tissue injuries 418 11.1.3 Hard tissue injuries 424 11.1.4 Assessment of injuries 426 11.2 Sports medicine and the demands of specific athletes 428 11.2.1 Children and young athletes 428 11.2.2 Adult and aged athletes 434 11.2.3 Female athletes 437 11.3 Preventative action - Enhancing the well-being of the athlete 441 11.3.1 Physical preparation 443 11.3.2 Sports policy and the sports environment 448 11.3.3 Environmental considerations 454 11.3.4 Taping and bandaging 464 11.4 Managing injury rehabilitation 467 11.4.1 Injury management procedures 467 11.4.2 Return to play 470 11.5 Topic review 474 11.5.1 Summary 474 11.5.2 Questions 475 11.5.3 Key terms 476 12 Improving performance 479 12.1 Training for improved performance 480 12.1.1 Strength training 480 12.1.2 Aerobic training 490 12.1.3 Anaerobic training 496 12.1.4 Flexibility training 503 12.1.5 Skill training 508 12.2 Planning considerations for improving performance 513 12.2.1 Initial planning considerations 513 12.2.2 Planning a training year 515 12.2.3 Elements to be considered when designing a training session 523 12.2.4 Planning to avoid overtraining 529 12.3 Ethical issues related to improving performance 531 12.3.1 Use of drugs 531 12.3.2 Use of technology 536 12.4 Topic review 542 12.4.1 Summary 542 12.4.2 Questions 543 12.4.3 Key terms 544 13 Equity and health 547 13.1 Inequities in the health of Australians 548 13.1.1 Factors that create health inequities 548 13.2 Inequities experienced by population groups in Australia 556 13.2.1 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 556 13.2.2 People in rural and geographically remote locations 569 13.2.3 Inequities for other population groups - summaries 577 13.3 Bridging the gap in populations' health status 594 13.3.1 Funding to improve health 594 13.3.2 Actions that improve health 596 13.3.3 A social justice framework for addressing health inequities 597 13.3.4 Characteristics of effective health promotion strategies 599 13.4 Topic review 601 13.4.1 Summary 601 13.4.2 Questions 602 13.4.3 Key terms 603 Appendix 1 Techniques, Hints and Practice Exam 605 Appendix 2 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion 613 Glossary 617 Index 627

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