Preface Section 1 Survey 1: The relationship of language and culture Nature, culture, language Communities of language users Imagined communities Insiders/outsiders Linguistic relativity The Sapir - Whorf hypothesis Summary 2: Meaning as sign The linguistic sign The meaning of signs Cultural encodings Semantic cohesion The non-arbitrary nature of signs Symbols Summary 3: Meaning as action Context of situation, context of culture Structures of expectation Contextualization cues, situated inferences Pragmatic coherence The co-operative principle Participants' roles and the co-construction of culture Summary 4: Spoken language, oral culture Speech and writing Indicating status Social positionings Protecting face Conversational style Narrative style Summary 5: Print language, literate culture Written language, textual culture Print and power Social construction of literacy Text and discourse Literacy event, prior text, point of view Genre Summary 6: Language and cultural identity Cultural identity Cultural stereotypes Language crossing as act of identity Linguistic nationism Standard language, cultural totem Linguistic and cultural imperialism Summary 7: Current issues Who is a native speaker? Cultural authenticity Cross-cultural, intercultural, multicultural The politics of recognition Section 2 Readings Section 3 References Section 4 Glossary
Offers an accessible survey of key concepts such as social context and cultural authenticity. By Claire Kramsch. Part of the Oxford Introductions to Language Study series.