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Lean Six SIGMA for Dummies 3e


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Table of Contents

Introduction 1

About This Book 2

Foolish Assumptions 2

Icons Used In This Book 3

Beyond This Book 3

Where to Go From Here 4

Part I: Getting Started with Lean Six Sigma 5 Chapter 1: Defining Lean Six Sigma 7

Introducing Lean Thinking 7

Bringing on the basics of Lean 8

Perusing the principles of Lean thinking 14

Sussing Six Sigma 14

Considering the core of Six Sigma 14

Calculating process sigma values 17

Clarifying the major points of Six Sigma 20

Chapter 2: Understanding the Principles of Lean Six Sigma 23

Considering the Key Principles of Lean Six Sigma 23

Improving Existing Processes: Introducing DMAIC 25

Defining your project 26

Measuring how the work is done 32

Analysing your process 32

Improving your process 33

Coming up with a control plan 33

Reviewing Your DMAIC Phases 34

Taking a Pragmatic Approach 37

Part II: Working with Lean Six Sigma 41 Chapter 3: Identifying Your Customers 43

Understanding the Process Basics 43

Pinpointing the elements of a process 44

Identifying internal and external customers 45

Getting a High-Level Picture 47

Drawing a high-level process map 48

Segmenting customers 52

Chapter 4: Understanding Your Customers' Needs 53

Considering If You Can Kano 53

Obtaining the Voice of the Customer 55

Taking an outside-in view 55

Segmenting your customers 56

Prioritising your customers 57

Researching the Requirements 58

Interviewing your customers 60

Focusing on focus groups 61

Considering customer surveys 62

Using observations 63

Avoiding Bias 64

Considering Critical To Quality Customer Requirements 65

Establishing the Real CTQs 69

Prioritising the requirements 70

Measuring performance using customer-focused measures 71

Chapter 5: Determining the Chain of Events 73

Finding Out How the Work Gets Done 73

Practising process stapling 74

Drawing spaghetti diagrams 76

Painting a Picture of the Process 78

Keeping things simple 79

Developing a deployment flowchart 80

Constructing a value stream map 84

Identifying moments of truth 93

Part III: Assessing Performance 95 Chapter 6: Gathering Information 97

Managing by Fact 97

Realising the importance of good data 98

Reviewing what you currently measure 98

Deciding what to measure 99

Developing a Data Collection Plan 100

Beginning with output measures 100

Creating clear definitions 102

Agreeing rules to ensure valid and consistent data 102

Collecting the data 105

Identifying ways to improve your approach 107

Introducing Sampling 108

Process sampling 109

Population sampling 110

Chapter 7: Presenting Your Data 117

Delving into Different Types of Variation 117

Understanding natural variation 118

Spotlighting special cause variation 119

Distinguishing between variation types 119

Avoiding tampering 119

Displaying data differently 120

Recognising the Importance of Control Charts 121

Creating a control chart 122

Unearthing unusual features 123

Choosing the right control chart 126

Examining the state of your processes 127

Considering the capability of your processes 129

Additional ways to present and analyse your data 133

Testing Your Theories 136

Chapter 8: Analysing What's Affecting Performance 139

Unearthing the Usual Suspects 139

Generating your list of suspects 140

Investigating the suspects and getting the facts 142

Getting a Balance of Measures 143

Connecting things up 144

Proving your point 145

Seeing the point 147

Assessing your effectiveness 150

Part IV: Improving the Processes 155 Chapter 9: Identifying Value-Adding Steps and Waste 157

Interpreting Value-Added 157

Providing a common definition 158

Carrying out a value-added analysis 159

Assessing opportunity 161

Looking at the Seven Wastes 161

Owning up to overproduction 162

Playing the waiting game 163

Troubling over transportation 163

Picking on processing 164

Investigating inventory 164

Moving on motion 165

Coping with correction 166

Looking Beyond the Seven Wastes 166

Wasting people's potential 167

Going green 167

Considering customer perspectives 168

Focusing on the Vital Few 169

Chapter 10: Discovering the Opportunity for Prevention 171

Keeping Things Neat and Tidy 172

Introducing the Five Ss 172

Carrying out a red-tag exercise 173

Using visual management 174

Looking at Prevention Tools and Techniques 178

Introducing Jidoka 178

Reducing risk with Failure Mode Effects Analysis 179

Error proofing your processes 181

Profiting from Preventive Maintenance 183

Avoiding Peaks and Troughs 184

Introducing Heijunka 184

Spreading the load 185

Carrying out work in a standard way 186

Chapter 11: Detecting and Tackling Bottlenecks 189

Applying the Theory of Constraints 189

Identifying the weakest link 189

Improving the process flow 190

Building a buffer 192

Managing the Production Cycle 193

Using pull rather than push production 193

Moving to single piece flow 194

Recognising the problem with batches 195

Looking at Your Layout 195

Identifying wasted movement 195

Using cell manufacturing techniques 196

Identifying product families 197

Chapter 12: Introducing Design for Six Sigma 199

Introducing DfSS 199

Introducing DMADV 200

Defining What Needs Designing 201

Getting the measure of the design 202

Analysing the design 202

Developing the design 204

Verifying that the design works 204

Choosing between DMAIC and DMADV 205

Considering Quality Function Deployment 206

Clarifying what these houses and rooms are all about 207

Undertaking a QFD drill-down 217

Making Decisions 218

Part V: Deploying Lean Six Sigma 221 Chapter 13: Leading the Deployment 223

Looking at the Key Factors for Successful Deployment 223

Understanding Executive Sponsorship 224

Considering Size 226

Introducing the Deployment Programme Manager 227

Starting Your Lean Six Sigma Programme 229

Understanding What Project Champions Do 231

Chapter 14: Selecting the Right Projects 233

Driving Strategy Deployment with Lean Six Sigma 233

Generating a List of Candidate Improvement Projects 234

Working Out Whether Lean Six Sigma Is the Right Approach 237

Prioritising projects 239

Using a criteria selection matrix 240

Deciding on which approach fits which project: Doing the work right 242

Setting Up a DMAIC Project 243

Chapter 15: Running Rapid Improvement Events 245

Seeing Rapid Improvement with Kaizen or Kai Sigma Events 245

Understanding the Facilitator's Role 248

Planning and preparation 248

Running the event 250

Following up and action planning 252

Creating a Checklist for Running Successful Events 252

Chapter 16: Putting It All Together 255

Working Your Way through DMAIC 256

Defining Where You're Going 256

Looking at the outputs from the Define phase 257

Being prepared: Typical questions the team needs to address in Define 258

Considering typical questions the champion needs to ask in Define 260

Getting the Measure of Things 260

Checking the outputs from the Measure phase 261

Noting some typical questions the team needs to

address in Measure 262

Recognising typical questions the champion needs to ask in Measure 263

Analysing the Data to Find the Root Cause 264

Checking the outputs from the Analyse phase 264

Examining typical questions the team needs to address in Analyse 265

Examining typical questions the champion needs to ask in Analyse 266

Quantifying the Opportunity 267

Applying Solutions in the Improve Phase 267

Checking the outputs from the Improve phase 269

Eyeing typical questions the team needs to address in Improve 270

Noting typical questions the champion needs to ask in Improve 272

Confirming the Customer and Business Benefits 273

Implementing Standardising and Controlling the Solution 275

Checking the outputs from the Control phase 275

Listing typical questions the team needs to address in Control 276

Noting typical questions the champion needs to ask in Control 278

Conducting the Final Benefit Review 279

Chapter 17: Ensuring Everyday Operational Excellence 281

Making Everyday Operational Excellence a Reality 281

Clarifying the Role of the Manager 283

Working on the process 283

Engaging the team 285

Getting Better Every Day in Every Way 287

Using the right methodology 289

Creating a culture of continuous improvement 290

Chapter 18: Comprehending the People Issues 291

Working Right Right from the Start 291

Gaining acceptance 292

Managing change 292

Overcoming resistance 294

Creating a Vision 295

Understanding Organisational Culture 297

Busting Assumptions 298

Seeing How People Cope with Change 299

Comparing energy and attitude 300

Using a forcefield diagram 301

Analysing your stakeholders 301

Focusing on key elements of change 303

Part VI: The Part of Tens 305 Chapter 19: Ten Best Practices 307

Lead and Manage the Programme 307

Appreciate that Less is More 308

Build in Prevention 309

Challenge Your Processes 310

Go to the Gemba 311

Manage Your Processes with Lean Six Sigma 311

Pick the Right Tools for the Job 312

Tell the Whole Story 313

Understand the Role of the Champion 314

Looking at the Lean Six Sigma programme executive sponsor 314

Perusing the role of the project champion 314

Use Strategy to Drive Lean Six Sigma 315

Chapter 20: Ten Pitfalls to Avoid 317

Jumping to Solutions 317

Coming Down with Analysis Paralysis 318

Falling into Common Project Traps 319

Stifling the Programme before You've Started 320

Ignoring the Soft Stuff 321

Getting Complacent 321

Thinking that You're Already Doing It 322

Believing the Myths 322

Doing the Wrong Things Right 323

Overtraining 324

Chapter 21: Ten (Plus One) Places to Go for Help 325

Your Colleagues 325

Your Champion 326

Other Organisations 326

The Internet 326

Social Media 327

Networks and Associations 328

Conferences 328

Books 328

Periodicals 330

Software 330

Statistical analysis 330

Simulation 331

Deployment management 331

Mobile apps 332

Training and Consultancy Companies 332

Index 333

About the Author

John Morgan and Martin Brenig-Jones are Directors of Catalyst Consulting, Europe's leading provider of Lean Six Sigma solutions. John works primarily in product design and development. Martin is an expert in quality and change management. Both are accomplished coaches and trainers.

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