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Marine Ornamental Species Aquaculture
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xxv Foreword xxxi Part I Overview of Marine Ornamental Species Aquaculture 1 1 The Marine Ornamental Species Trade 3 Matthew R. Palmtag 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 History 4 1.3 Economics of Trade 5 1.4 Species of Trade 5 1.5 Organization of Trade 6 1.6 Environmental Impact 7 1.7 Marine Ornamentals Aquaculture 9 1.8 Conclusions 12 Acknowledgements 12 References 12 2 The Need for Cultured Specimens 15 Ricardo Calado 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Should All Marine Ornamental Species be Cultured? 16 2.3 Highly Demanded Marine Ornamental Species Cultured in Captivity 18 2.4 Conclusions 20 References 21 3 Life Cycles in Marine Ornamental Species - Fishes as a Case Study 23 Ike Olivotto, Ming?Yih Leu and Mercedes Blazquez 3.1 Introduction 23 3.2 Patterns of Sexuality in Fish 24 3.3 Sex Determination and Sex Differentiation in Fish 28 3.4 Molecular Markers of Sex Differentiation 29 3.5 Transcriptomic Studies on Fish Sex Differentiation 29 3.6 Demersal Spawners 30 3.7 Pelagic Spawners 34 3.8 Conclusions 38 Acknowledgements 39 References 39 4 Early Culture Trials and an Overview on U.S. Marine Ornamental Species Trade 51 Andrew L. Rhyne, Michael F. Tlusty and Joseph T. Szczebak 4.1 Introduction 51 4.2 Import Data and the Marine Aquarium Trade 52 4.3 Aquaculture for the Marine Aquarium Trade: Bottlenecks and Opportunities 58 4.4 Constraints and Opportunities for the Commercial Production of Marine Aquarium Species 59 4.5 Risks and Benefits of Aquaculture Production 63 4.6 Conclusions 66 Acknowledgements 66 References 66 Part II Facilities, Culture Systems and Other Specific Requirements 71 5 Location 75 Ricardo Calado 5.1 Introduction 75 5.2 In Situ Culture 76 5.3 Ex Situ Culture 77 5.4 Licensing and Other Legal Issues 77 5.5 Conclusions 78 References 78 6 Broodstock Systems 81 Rui J.m. Rocha and Maria Teresa Dinis 6.1 Introduction 81 6.2 Broodstock Management and Reproduction 82 6.3 Systems Design and Planning 82 6.4 Conclusions 96 Acknowledgements 97 References 97 7 Larviculture Systems 101 Ike Olivotto and Miquel Planas Oliver 7.1 Introduction 101 7.2 Microcosms 102 7.3 Mesocosms 105 7.4 Conclusions 108 Acknowledgements 109 References 109 8 Live Prey Production Systems 111 Miquel Planas Oliver, Ike Olivotto and Claudia Turchi 8.1 Introduction 111 8.2 Microalgae 112 8.3 Rotifers 113 8.4 Artemia 115 8.5 Copepods 118 8.6 Other Prey 121 8.7 Conclusions 122 Acknowledgements 122 References 122 9 Larval Diets and Nutrition 125 Ike Olivotto, Miquel Planas Oliver and Claudia Turchi 9.1 Larval Nutritional Requirements 125 9.2 Microalgae 127 9.3 Rotifers, Artemia and Ciliates 129 9.4 Copepods 131 9.5 Inert Diets (Dry Food and Preserved Copepods) 133 9.6 Conclusions 134 References 134 10 Growout and Broodstock Nutrition 139 Steven R. Craig, Todd R. Gardner and Oliana Carnevali 10.1 Introduction 139 10.2 Nutritional Components 140 10.3 Broodstock Nutrition 145 10.4 Probiotics 149 10.5 Conclusions 152 References 153 11 Considerations for Developing a Marine Ornamental Hatchery 159 Avier J. Montalvo 11.1 Introduction 159 11.2 Hatchery Location 160 11.3 Facility Layout 160 11.4 Water Sources 160 11.5 Electricity 162 11.6 Lighting 163 11.7 Tanks and Aquariums 163 11.8 Diet and Nutrition 167 11.9 Quarantine 168 11.10 Filtration 169 11.11 Market Assessment 170 11.12 Quality Control 171 11.13 Other Considerations 171 11.14 Conclusions 172 Acknowledgements 172 References 172 Part III Marine Ornamental Fishes Aquaculture 175 12 Clownfish 177 Ike Olivotto and Benjamin Geffroy 12.1 Introduction 177 12.2 Social Structure 179 12.3 Sex Reversal in Clownfish 180 12.4 Broodstock Nutrition 182 12.5 Broodstock Tanks and Establishing Pairs 183 12.6 Spawning 185 12.7 Hatching, Larval Tanks and First Feeding 187 12.8 Early Trials 190 12.9 Conclusions 193 Acknowledgements 194 References 194 13 Mouthbrooders - the Banggai Cardinalfish 201 Alejandro A. Vagelli 13.1 Introduction 201 13.2 The Reproductive Biology of Pterapogon kauderni 203 13.3 General Ecological Characteristics of Pterapogon kauderni 207 13.4 Captive Breeding of Pterapogon kauderni 209 13.5 Nutritional Aspects and Diseases 216 13.6 Conclusions 219 Acknowledgements 219 References 219 14 Other Demersal Spawners and Mouthbrooders 223 Marcelo Shei, Miguel Mies and Ike Olivotto 14.1 Introduction 223 14.2 Gobies (Gobiidae) 224 14.3 Blennies (Blenniidae) 228 14.4 Dottybacks (Pseudochromidae) 231 14.5 Damselfishes (Pomacentridae) 236 14.6 Other Demersal Spawning Families 240 14.7 Other Mouthbrooders 242 14.8 Conclusions 243 Acknowledgements 243 References 243 15 Large Angelfish and Other Pelagic Spawners 251 G. Joan Holt, Ming?Yih Leu, Chatham K. Callan and Brad Erisman 15.1 Introduction 251 15.2 Serranidae 254 15.3 Lutjanidae 257 15.4 Haemulidae 258 15.5 Sciaenidae 260 15.6 Chaetodontidae 262 15.7 Pomacanthidae 263 15.8 Labridae 265 15.9 Callionymidae 268 15.10 Ephippidae 269 15.10.1 Spadefish (Chaetodipterus faber) 269 15.10.2 Orbiculate Batfish (Platax orbicularis) 269 15.10.3 Longfin Batfish (Platax teira) 269 15.11 Acanthuridae 270 15.11.1 Palette Surgeonfish (Paracanthurus hepatus) 270 15.11.2 Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) 271 15.12 Conclusions 273 Acknowledgements 273 References 274 16 Dwarf Angelfish 279 Frank Baensch 16.1 Introduction 279 16.2 Broodstock 282 16.3 Larval Rearing 286 16.4 Juvenile Growout 293 16.5 Conclusions 295 Acknowledgements 296 References 296 17 Seahorses and Pipefish 299 Miquel Planas Oliver, Robert Burhans and Nuno Simoes 17.1 Introduction 299 17.2 Anatomy and General Biology 300 17.3 Reproduction and Mating System 301 17.4 Husbandry 303 17.5 Rearing Systems 307 17.6 Diseases 311 17.7 Rearing of Selected Seahorse Species 314 17.8 Rearing of Selected Pipefish 317 17.9 Rearing of Seadragons 320 17.10 Conclusions 322 Acknowledgements 322 References 322 18 Post?Larval Capture and Culture of Ornamental Fishes 327 Gilles Lecaillon 18.1 Introduction 327 18.2 PCC Versus Fish Life Cycle 328 18.3 Features Determining Species Suitability to the Marine Aquarium Trade 330 18.4 Hobbyist Responsibilities 335 18.5 Pcc Experiences 339 18.6 Conclusions 342 Acknowledgements 343 References 343 19 Common Diseases in Marine Ornamental Fishes 347 Maria Letizia Fioravanti and Daniela Florio 19.1 Introduction 347 19.2 Parasitic Diseases 349 19.3 Mycotic Diseases 358 19.4 Bacterial Diseases 360 19.5 Viral Diseases 365 19.6 Conclusions 368 Acknowledgements 368 References 369 Part IV Marine Ornamental Invertebrates Aquaculture 381 20 Live Rock 385 Nuno Simoes, Andres Altamira, Marcelo Shei and Francesco Perissonotti 20.1 Introduction 385 20.2 Trade of Live Rock: a Bit of History 387 20.3 Types of Live Rock 388 20.4 Principal Recipes to Make Your Own Aquacultured Live Rock 391 20.5 Decoration Versus Filtration: Myth or Reality? 392 20.6 Problems in Use 393 20.7 Financial Issues? 394 20.8 Observations on the Differences of Live Rock 395 20.9 Conclusions 399 Acknowledgements 399 References 399 21 Cnidarians 403 Ricardo Calado References 404 21.1 Corals 406 Miguel C. Leal, Christine Ferrier?Pages, Dirk Petersen and Ronald Osinga References 429 21.2 Sea Anemones 437 Anna Scott Acknowledgements 448 References 448 21.3 Jellyfish 457 Mike Schaadt, Chad L. Widmer and Nancy Sowinski Acknowledgements 471 References 471 22 Decapod Crustaceans 475 Ricardo Calado References 476 22.1 Shrimp 477 Ricardo Calado, Junda Lin, Gilles Lecaillon and Andrew L. Rhyne References 491 22.2 Other Marine Ornamental Decapods 496 Andrew L. Rhyne, Junda Lin and Ricardo Calado References 504 23 Molluscs 507 Ricardo Calado References 508 23.1 Giant Clams 510 Miguel Mies, Marcello S. Scozzafave, Felipe Braga and Paulo Y.g. Sumida Acknowledgements 529 References 529 23.2 Snails, Slugs and Cephalopods 536 Gisela Dionisio, Filipa Faleiro and Rui Rosa Acknowledgements 554 References 554 24 Polychaetes 565 David R. Bybee and Joanna M. Murray 24.1 Introduction 565 24.2 Worms Sold in the Trade 567 24.3 An Introduction on Ornamental Polychaete Culture 567 24.4 Sexual Reproduction as a Method of Culture 568 24.5 Asexual Reproduction and Regeneration as Methods of Culture 571 24.6 Conclusions 575 Acknowledgements 576 References 576 25 Other Invertebrates and Macroalgae 581 Ricardo Calado and Martin Moe Jr. 25.1 Introduction 581 25.2 Sponges 582 25.3 Tunicates 583 25.4 Echinoderms 583 25.5 Macroalgae 589 25.6 Conclusions 590 References 591 Part V Other Issues in Marine Ornamental Species Aquaculture 595 26 Packing and Shipping 597 Joao P. Correia and Nuno V. Rodrigues 26.1 Introduction 597 26.2 Packing 598 26.3 Shipping 602 26.4 Conclusions 606 Acknowledgements 606 References 606 27 The Role of Public and Private Aquaria in the Culture and Conservation of Marine Ornamentals 609 Ricardo Calado References 610 27.1 Public Aquaria 611 Michael F. Tlusty, Nuria Baylina, Andrew L. Rhyne, Chris Brown and Mark Smith References 620 27.2 Interaction Between Public and Private Aquaria 623 Judy St. Leger and gary Violetta Acknowledgements 632 References 632 28 How Nano Tanks can Foster the Demand for Bred and Cultured Marine Ornamentals 635 Christiane Schmidt 28.1 Introduction 635 28.2 The Need 637 28.3 Where we are Now 638 28.4 Challenges 639 28.5 Solutions 641 28.6 Conclusions 645 Acknowledgements 645 References 645 Part VI Future Challenges and Concluding Remarks 647 Glossary 651 Appendix 655 Index 663

About the Author

About the Editors Ricardo Calado, Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal Ike Olivotto, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Italy Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC), Spain G.Joan Holt, Marine Science Institute, University of Texas, USA

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