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Military Ethics


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Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with Notes, Further Reading, and Discussion Questions. Preface: List of Abbreviations: 1. INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS ETHICS? WHAT IS AN ETHICAL DECISION? What Is Ethics and Why Should I Study It? Law and Ethics Ethical Dilemmas and Tests of Lntegrity 2. ETHICAL THEORY: AN OVERVIEW Case Study 2.1: The Runaway Railway Car: Case Study 2.2: The Spare Parts Surgeon: Ethical Considerations Theories of Value and Theories of Ethics Ethical Theory: Consequences Case Study 2.3: First Use of the Atomic Bomb: Criticizing Consequentialism Ethical Theory: Principles and Duties Case Study 2.4: Shooting the Downed Pilot: Criticizing Deontology Ethical Theory: Character Case Study 2.5: Marines Don't Do That: Is Ethics Simply Relative? Integrating Theories of Ethics 3. PROFESSIONAL ETHICS, DUTIES, AND OBLIGATIONS Case Study 3.1: The HMAS Westralia Fire Discussion The Profession of Arms Role Morality Military Values and Military Virtue Case Study 3.2: Leave No One Behind: Case Study 3.3: The Training Course: The Triangular Balance Case Study 3.4: Military Dispute over Casualties in Afghanistan: Case Study 3.5: Esequiel Hernandez Shooting: 4. JUST WAR THEORY: TRADITIONAL ISSUES OF JUS AD BELLUM Case Study 4.1: The 1991 Gulf War: Case Study 4.2: The 2003 Invasion of Iraq: Discussion Alternative Theories on War Pacifism: Realism: A Very Brief History of Just War Theory Ethics and International Law Implementing the Principles of Jus Ad Bellum Case Study 4.3: The Korean War: Case Study 4.4: The Six Day War: Case Study 4.5: Israeli Attack on Iraq's Osirak Nuclear Reactor: Case Study 4.6: The Falklands War: Assessing the Two Gulf Wars 5. JUST WAR THEORY: MODERN ISSUES OF JUS AD BELLUM: HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION, INSURGENCY, AND COUNTERINSURGENCY Case Study 5.1: Operation Cast Lead: Case Study 5.2: The 1999 NATO Intervention in Support of Kosovo: Discussion Of Countries, States, and Nations The Basics of Jus Ad Bellum and Insurgency Case Study 5.3: The Fight Against Apartheid: Jus Ad Bellum and Difficult Insurgency Cases Jus Ad Bellum and Counterinsurgency Case Study 5.4: Israel, Uganda, and the Entebbe Incident: Justification for Humanitarian Intervention Case Study 5.5: The Rwandan Genocide: Case Study 5.6: Intervention in East Timor: Responsibility to Protect 6. POWER AND AUTHORITY: ISSUING AND FOLLOWING ORDERS Case Study 6.1: Ehren Watada and Iraq: Case Study 6.2: Marine Advance on Baghdad: Discussion Considering Authority Case Study 6.3: Wearing Body Armor in Afghanistan: Case Study 6.4: The Logistics Officer's Problem: The Ethical Problems of Orders Case Study 6.5: Orders to HMS Alacrity Case Study 6.6: Placing the Strobe: Case Study 6.7: Come Right!: Case Study 6.8: Reinterpreting Orders: 7. DISCRIMINATION AND PROPORTIONALITY I: TRADITIONAL ISSUES OF JUS IN BELLO Case Study 7.1: Airpower and Marine Assault: Discussion Discrimination The Ethical Permissibility of Targeting Combatants The Principle of Noncombatant Immunity Case Study 7.2: The Incident at the Fallujah Mosque: Proportionality Case Study 7.3: Sinking of the General Belgrano Case Study 7.4: The Dam Busters Raid: Modern Assessment of Collateral Damage Case Study 7.5: Conviction of Milan Martic?: Summary 8. DISCRIMINATION AND PROPORTIONALITY II: JUS IN BELLO IN IRREGULAR WARS Case Study 8.1: Casualties in the 2008-2009 Gaza War: Discussion Discrimination in Irregular Wars Case Study 8.2: Defending the Crashed Helicopter: Rules of Engagement and Civilian Casualties in Irregular Wars Case Study 8.3: Assault on a Taliban Compound: Difficult Cases of Discrimination in Irregular Wars Case Study 8.4: Israel and Targeted Killing: Proportionality in Irregular Wars 9. DISCRIMINATION AND PROPORTIONALITY III: JUS IN BELLO IN HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS Case Study 9.1: NATO Attacks and Dual-Use Targets: Discussion Jus In Bello in Armed Humanitarian Operations Dual-Use Targets Peacekeeping or Peacemaking? Case Study 9.2: Protecting Civilians by Endangering Troops: Case Study 9.3: The Baby Ram: Case Study 9.4: The Child Soldier: Case Study 9.5: Moscow Theatre Siege: 10. ISSUES OF SURRENDER AND DETENTION Case Study 10.1: Operation Red Wings: Discussion Surrender Case Study 10.2: White Flags in Desert Storm: Case Study 10.3: After the Battle: Prisoners of War Case Study 10.4: The Sniper and the Murderer: 11. SUPREME EMERGENCY, TERRORISM, AND TORTURE Case Study 11.1: The Petraeus Letter to the Troops: Discussion Supreme Emergency Case Study 11.2: The Decision to Bomb German Cities: Supreme Emergency and Terrorism in the Modern World Supreme Emergency and Counterterrorism in the Modern World Case Study 11.3: The Ticking Bomb in Paris: Case Study 11.4: The Ticking Bomb in Sri Lanka: 12. CONCLUSION Competence and the Professional The Unlimited Liability Contract Of Warriors and Murderers Knowing and Doing Appendix: The Laws of Armed Conflict: Bibliography: Index:

About the Author

Dr. Stephen Coleman is Senior Lecturer in Ethics and Leadership & Vincent Fairfax Foundation Fellow in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of NSW, Canberra, at the Australian Defence Force Academy. He is the author of one book (The Ethics of Artificial Uteruses: Implications for Reproduction and Abortion, Ashgate, 2004) and many papers in academic journals and edited collections on a diverse range of topics in applied ethics, including military ethics, police ethics, medical ethics, and the practical applications of human rights.


"I am quite excited about the possibility of using this book in the classroom. The case studies are one of the great glories of the book. They are judiciously chosen and thoughtfully and clearly presented. I would expect them to be extremely helpful in the classroom."--Richard D. Schoonhoven, United States Military Academy, West Point "Military Ethics addresses a critical need in the pedagogical literature. By far the greatest advance is Coleman's approach to 'problem-based learning.' Each chapter begins with a range of short but engaging case studies that pose dilemmas of unquestionable significance and relevance for a military reader in any cultural setting."--George R. Lucas, Stockdale Center for Ethics and Leadership, U.S. Naval Academy "The book is extremely thorough and well organized. The case studies are well chosen, illustrative, pertinent, and current."--Eric A. Heinze, University of Oklahoma "This is a superb book that covers a wide range of issues. Cleverly designed, it will act as a first-class teaching tool that will generate classroom discussion. It should work superbly as a general-purpose text for all of us interested in military ethics."--Cian O'Driscoll, University of Glasgow

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