Preface xv About the Authors xix PART I: Principles and Assumptions of Multicultural Social Work Practice 1 Chapter 1 Cultural Diversity and Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 3 Chapter Learning Objectives 3 Overview 4 Voices of Diversity and Marginalization 4 African American Male 4 Gay American 4 Female Worker 5 Person with a Disability 5 Person in Poverty 6 Individual from an Undocumented Immigrant Family 6 Diversification of the United States and Implications for Social Work 10 The Multiple Dimensions of Human Identity 14 Individual Level 16 Group Level 17 Universal Level 18 Individual and Universal Biases in Social Work 18 Multicultural Challenges in Social Work Practice 20 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 22 Summary 23 Chapter 2 Theoretical Foundations for Multicultural Social Work Practice 29 Chapter Learning Objectives 29 Overview 30 Theoretical Perspectives for Competent Multicultural Social Work Practice 30 Ecological Systems Perspective 31 Strengths Perspective 33 Social Justice Perspective 35 Critical Perspective 37 Antiracism as a Social Work Agenda 39 Intersectionality Perspective 43 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 53 Summary 54 Chapter 3 Becoming Culturally Competent in Social Work Practice 59 Chapter Learning Objectives 59 Overview 60 Defining Cultural Competence in Social Work Practice 60 Four Components of Cultural Competence 62 Competency 1: Becoming Aware of One's Own Values, Biases, and Assumptions about Human Behavior 62 Competency 2: Understanding the Worldviews of Culturally Diverse Clients 63 Competency 3: Developing Appropriate Intervention Strategies and Techniques 64 Competency 4: Understanding Organizational and Institutional Forces That Enhance or Diminish Cultural Competence 66 Working Definition of Cultural Competence 67 Multidimensional Model of Cultural Competence in Social Work 69 Dimension 1: Group-Specific Worldviews 70 Dimension 2: Components of Cultural Competence 71 Dimension 3: Foci of Cultural Competence 77 What Is Multicultural Social Work Practice? 79 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 81 Summary 82 PART II: Systemic Oppression and Social Justice 87 Chapter 4 Understanding the Sociopolitical Implications of Oppression and Power in Social Work Practice 89 Chapter Learning Objectives 89 Overview 90 A Clash of Expectations 90 Effects of Historical and Current Oppression 95 Ethnocentric Monoculturalism 96 Belief in Superiority 96 Belief in the Inferiority of Others 97 Power to Impose Standards 97 Manifestation in Institutions 98 The Invisible Veil 98 Historical Manifestations of Ethnocentric Monoculturalism 99 Impact of Ethnocentric Monoculturalism in Helping Relationships 102 Credibility, Expertness, and Trustworthiness in Multicultural Social Work Practice 105 Credibility of the Social Worker 105 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 110 Summary 111 Chapter 5 Microaggressions in Social Work Practice 117 Chapter Learning Objectives 117 Overview 118 What Did He Really Mean? 118 Microaggression as a Form of Oppression 121 Microaggressions and the Clash of Sociodemographic Realities 122 Microaggressions and the Invisibility of Unintentional Expressions of Bias 131 Microaggressions and the Perceived Minimal Harm 133 The Catch-22 of Responding to Microaggressions 133 Categories of Microaggressions 133 Social Work Practice and Microaggression 136 Microinsults and Direct Social Work Practice 137 Microinvalidations and Direct Social Work Practice 140 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 144 Summary 145 PART III: Racial/Cultural Identity Development 149 Chapter 6 Racial/Cultural Minority Identity Development 151 Chapter Learning Objectives 151 Overview 152 Who Am I? 152 Racial/Cultural Identity Development Models 154 Black Identity Development Models 156 Other Racial/Ethnic Identity Development Models 157 Feminist Identity Theory 158 Working Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model 158 Conformity Stage 159 Who Am I-White or Black? 160 Dissonance Stage 165 Resistance and Immersion Stage 166 Introspection Stage 168 Integrative Awareness Stage 170 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 172 Summary 173 Chapter 7 White Racial Identity Development 179 Chapter Learning Objectives 179 Overview 180 "What Does It Mean to Be White?" 180 Forty-Two-Year-Old White Businessman 180 Twenty-Six-Year-Old White Female College Student 181 Sixty-Five-Year-Old White Male Construction Worker (Retired) 181 Thirty-Four-Year-Old White Female Stockbroker 182 Twenty-Nine-Year-Old Latina Administrative Assistant 182 Thirty-Nine-Year-Old Black Male Salesman 183 Twenty-One-Year-Old Chinese American Male College Student (Majoring in Ethnic Studies) 183 The Invisible Whiteness of Being 184 Understanding the Dynamics of Whiteness 185 Models of White Racial Identity Development 187 The Hardiman White Racial Identity Development Model 188 The Helms White Racial Identity Model 191 The Process of White Racial Identity Development: A Descriptive Model 196 Conformity Stage 196 Dissonance Stage 197 Resistance and Immersion Stage 199 Introspection Stage 200 Integrative Awareness Stage 201 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 202 Summary 203 PART IV: Practice Dimensions of Multicultural Social Work 207 Chapter 8 Barriers to Effective Multicultural Clinical Practice 209 Chapter Learning Objectives 209 Overview 210 Cultural Barriers: A Case Example 210 Generic Characteristics of Counseling and Therapy 214 Sources of Conflict and Misinterpretation in Clinical Practice 218 Culture-Bound Values 218 Class-Bound Values 226 Language Barriers 232 Generalizations and Stereotypes: Some Cautions 233 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 234 Summary 235 Chapter 9 Cultural Styles in Multicultural Intervention Strategies 241 Chapter Learning Objectives 241 Overview 242 "Speaking from My 'Cultural Space'": A Case Example 242 Communication Styles 244 Nonverbal Communication 246 Proxemics 246 Kinesics 247 Paralanguage 250 High- versus Low-Context Communication 252 Sociopolitical Facets of Nonverbal Communication 254 Nonverbals as Refl ections of Bias 255 Nonverbals as Triggers of Biases and Fears 258 Differential Skills in Multicultural Social Work Practice 261 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 264 Summary 265 Chapter 10 Multicultural Family Social Work Interventions 269 Chapter Learning Objectives 269 Overview 270 Family Life, Mental Health, and Culture: A Case Study 270 Family Systems Approaches and Assumptions 276 Issues in Working with Racial/Ethnic Minority Families 279 Racial/Ethnic Minority Reality 279 Conflicting Value Systems 280 Biculturalism and Acculturation 280 Ethnic Differences in Minority Status 281 Ethnicity and Language 283 Ethnicity and Social Class 284 Multicultural Family Social Work: A Conceptual Model 285 People-Nature Relationship Dimension 286 Time Dimension 288 Relational Dimension 290 Activity Dimension 291 Nature of People Dimension 293 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 294 Summary 296 Chapter 11 Religion, Spirituality, and Indigenous Methods of Healing 301 Chapter Learning Objectives 301 Overview 302 Religion, Spirituality, and Social Work Education 302 Religious Affiliation and Ethnic Identity 306 Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and Religious Identity 307 African American Religious Identity 307 Latino/Hispanic Religious Identity and Affiliation 308 Native American Religious Practices 309 Muslim Americans and Religious Affiliation 309 Spiritual Assessments in Social Work Practice 310 Indigenous Spirituality and Healing 311 Spirit Attacks: The Case of Vang Xiong 312 The Legitimacy of Culture-Bound Syndromes: Nightmare Deaths and the Hmong Sudden Death Phenomenon 314 Causation and Spirit Possession 318 Shaman as Therapist: Commonalities 320 Principles of Indigenous Healing 321 Holistic Outlook, Interconnectedness, and Harmony 324 Belief in Metaphysical Levels of Existence 325 Spirituality in Life and the Cosmos 327 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 330 Summary 333 Chapter 12 Multicultural Organizational Change: Antiracist Practice and Social Justice 341 Chapter Learning Objectives 341 Overview 342 Where Do Social Workers Do Social Work? 342 Monocultural versus Multicultural Organizational Perspectives in Social Work 345 Lesson 1: A failure to develop a balanced perspective between person focus and systems focus can result in false attribution of the problem. 348 Lesson 2: A failure to develop a balanced perspective between person focus and system focus can result in an ineff ective and inaccurate treatment plan that is potentially harmful to the client. 349 Lesson 3: When the "client" is an organization or a larger system and not an individual, a major paradigm shift is needed to attain a true understanding of the problem and identify the solution. 349 Lesson 4: Organizations are microcosms of the wider society from which they originate. As a result, they are likely to be reflections of the monocultural values and practices of the larger culture. 350 Lesson 5: Organizations are powerful entities that inevitably resist change and possess within their arsenal many ways to force compliance in individuals. 350 Lesson 6: When multicultural organizational development is required, alternative helping roles that emphasize systems intervention must be part of the role repertoire of the social worker. 351 Lesson 7: Although remediation will always be needed, prevention is better. 351 Models of Multicultural Organizational Development 352 Culturally Competent Social Service Agencies 355 Antiracist Practice and Social Justice 359 Principle 1: Having Intimate and Close Contact with Others 360 Principle 2: Cooperating Rather Th an Competing 361 Principle 3: Sharing Mutual Goals 362 Principle 4: Exchanging Accurate Information 363 Principle 5: Sharing an Equal Relationship 364 Principle 6: Supporting Racial Equity by Leaders and Groups in Authority 366 Principle 7: Feeling Connected and Experiencing a Strong Sense of Belonging 367 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 368 Summary 369 Chapter 13 Evidence-Based Multicultural Social Work Practice 373 Chapter Learning Objectives 373 Overview 374 From "Doing Good" to "Doing Well" 374 What Is Evidence-Based Practice? 375 Evidence-Based Practice with Clients of Color 376 Evidence-Based Practice and Empirically Supported Treatments 378 Integration of EBP and EST to Enhance Cultural Sensitivity 379 Empirically Supported Relationships 385 The Working Alliance 386 Emotional or Interpersonal Bond 388 Empathy 389 Positive Regard, Respect, Warmth, and Genuineness 392 Self-Disclosure 393 Management of Countertransference 393 Goal Consensus 394 Implications for Multicultural Social Work Practice 395 Summary 396 PART V: Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Diverse Populations 403 Chapter 14 Profiles of Diverse Populations 405 Chapter Learning Objectives 405 Overview 406 Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with African Americans 407 Important Dimensions 407 Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders 412 Important Dimensions 413 Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Native Americans/First Nations Peoples and Alaska Natives 420 Important Dimensions 422 Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Latinos/Hispanics 430 Important Dimensions 432 Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Immigrants and Refugees 440 Important Dimensions 443 Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Biracial/Multiracial Persons 449 Important Dimensions 450 Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Women 460 Important Dimensions 462 Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with LGBT Individuals 469 Important Dimensions 470 Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Older Adults 475 Important Dimensions 476 Culturally Competent Social Work Practice with Persons with Disabilities 485 Important Dimensions 486 Summary 491 Author Index 503 Subject Index 515
DERALD WING SUE, PHD, is a Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University, where he also holds a joint appointment with the School of Social Work. MIKAL N. RASHEED, PHD, LCSW, is a Professor of Social Work and Director of the Master of Social Work Program at Chicago State University and Director of the Urban Solutions Institute at Chicago State University. JANICE MATTHEWS RASHEED, PHD, LCSW, is a Professor of Social Work at Loyola University Chicago's School of Social Work.