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Table of Contents

Preface vii About eBookPLUS viii Acknowledgements ix Preliminary core 1 Better health for individuals 1 1 What does health mean to individuals? 3 Meanings of health 4 Definitions of health 4 Dimensions of health 5 Relative and dynamic nature of health 9 Perceptions of health 12 Perceptions of our health 12 Perceptions of the health of others 13 Implications of different perceptions of health 15 Perceptions of health as social constructs 17 Impact of the media, peers and family 20 Health behaviours of young people 26 The positive health status of young people 26 Protective behaviours and risk behaviours 31 2 What influences the health of individuals? 55 The determinants of health 56 Individual factors 57 Sociocultural factors 61 Socioeconomic factors 69 Environmental factors 75 The degree of control individuals can exert over their health 84 Modifiable and non-modifiable health determinants 85 Changing influence of determinants through different life stages 89 Health as a social construct 93 The interrelationship of determinants 93 Challenging the notion that health is solely an individual?s responsibility 94 3 What strategies help to promote the health of individuals? 99 What is health promotion? 100 Responsibility for health promotion 102 Individuals 103 Community groups and schools 105 Non-government organisations 108 Government 109 International organisations 113 Health promotion approaches and strategies 115 Lifestyle and behavioural approaches 115 Preventative medical approaches 117 Public health approaches 118 The Ottawa Charter as an effective health promotion framework 123 Developing personal skills 124 Creating supportive environments 125 Strengthening community actions 125 Reorienting health services 126 Building healthy public policy 126 Principles of social justice 129 Equity 129 Diversity 131 Supportive environments 131 Preliminary core 2 The body in motion 135 4 Body systems and movement 137 Skeletal system 138 Major bones involved in movement 140 Structure and function of synovial joints 142 Joint actions 144 Muscular system 147 Major muscles involved in movement 149 Muscle relationship 152 Types of muscle contraction 153 Respiratory system 155 Structure and function 155 Lung function 157 The exchange of gases 158 Effect of physical activity on respiration 159 Circulatory system 160 Components of blood 160 Structure and function of the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries 162 Pulmonary and systemic circulation 166 Blood pressure 167 5 Physical fitness, training and movement efficiency 175 Health?]related components of physical fitness 176 Cardiorespiratory endurance 177 Muscular strength 181 Muscular endurance 183 Flexibility 185 Body composition 187 Skill-related components of physical fitness 190 Power 190 Speed 192 Agility 193 Coordination 195 Balance 197 Reaction time 198 Aerobic and anaerobic training 204 Aerobic training 204 FITT principle 205 Anaerobic training 208 Immediate physiological responses to training 211 Heart rate 212 Ventilation rate 213 Stroke volume 214 Cardiac output 215 Lactate levels 217 6 The biomechanics of human movement 223 Introduction to biomechanics 224 Motion 224 Linear motion 224 Velocity 226 Speed 226 Acceleration 228 Momentum 229 Balance and stability 231 Centre of gravity 231 Line of gravity 234 Base of support 235 Fluid mechanics 237 Flotation 237 Centre of buoyancy 239 Fluid resistance 240 Force 248 How the body applies force 248 How the body absorbs force 250 Application of force on an object 252 Options 259 7 First aid 261 Setting priorities for managing a first aid situation and assessing the casualty 262 Situational analysis 262 Priority assessment procedures 263 DRSABCD 264 STOP regime 270 Crisis management 272 CPR 272 Bleeding 272 Shock 272 Neck and spinal injury 273 Moving the casualty 273 FMPrelims.indd 4 24/06/14 9:58 AM contents v Medical referral 274 Care of the unconscious casualty 274 Management of injuries 275 Applying bandages, slings and splints 277 Management of medical conditions 279 Physical environment 282 Traffi c accidents 282 Water environment 283 Electricity 283 Infection control and protection 284 HIV/AIDS 284 Blood-borne viruses (hepatitis B and C) 285 Legal and moral dilemmas 285 Legal implications 285 Moral obligations 287 Commonsense versus heroics 288 Support following fi rst aid situations 288 Debriefi ng 288 Counselling 289 8 Composition and performance 9 Fitness choices 291 Meanings of exercise 292 Exercise as a form of physical activity 293 Exercise and its relationship to fitness 296 The value that people place on exercise and fitness 298 Changing attitudes to fitness 298 Fitness as a commodity 300 Individual fitness activities 303 Power walking 304 Running 304 Swimming 305 Cycling 305 Weight training programs 307 Tai chi 308 Pilates 309 Yoga 309 Emerging individual fitness activities 309 Group fitness activities 311 Aerobics 311 Aquarobics 311 Pump classes 312 Step classes 313 Spin classes 313 Circuit training 313 Team games 314 Exercise for specifi c groups 315 Emerging group fi tness activities 318 Settings for exercise 318 Exercise at home 319 Community facilities 319 Fitness centres and personal trainers 319 Exercise clubs 323 Cultural groups 324 Advertising and promotion 324 How do you know who to believe? 325 Promotional techniques 325 Accuracy of information 325 Ethics of advertising 326 Motivators and barriers to participation 327 Access to facilities 327 Convenience of use 327 Cost 328 Feelings about fi tness and exercise 328 Exercise as a priority 328 Infl uence of other responsibilities 328 10 Outdoor recreation 331 Reasons for participation in outdoor recreation 332 Stress management and relaxation 332 Enjoyment, challenge and excitement 333 Social interaction 335 Appreciation of the environment 335 Health and fi tness 336 Planning skills 336 Environmental planning 337 Emergency management planning 337 Food and water considerations 341 Resources for safe participation 344 Legal and administrative requirements 344 Camp site selection 349 Geographic, environmental and climatic considerations for establishing a camp site 349 Tree fall evaluation 351 Conservation skills 352 ?Leave no trace? camping 354 ONLINE ONLY Minimal impact practices 354 Ethical issues 355 Navigational skills 357 Check list for navigation 357 Map reading 357 Grid bearings 360 Magnetic bearing 361 Measuring distance 364 Natural navigation 364 Emergency management skills 365 Wilderness first aid 365 What to do when you are lost 367 Bushfire procedures 367 Lightning 368 Flooded rivers 368 Skills needed for other outdoor activities relevant to the experience 369 Leadership styles 371 Understanding group dynamics 372 Conflict resolution 373 Team building 373 Cooperation 373 Facilitation skills 374 Communication skills 374 Decision making 374 Flexibility 374 Understanding strengths and weaknesses 376 Participant readiness 376 Self?]efficacy 376 Balancing challenge and safety 376 Pushing the comfort zone 377 Appendix 1 381 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion 381 Appendix 2 384 Syllabus key words 384 Glossary 387

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