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Perturbation Theory for Linear Operators


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Table of Contents

One Operator theory in finite-dimensional vector spaces.- 1. Vector spaces and normed vector spaces.- 1. Basic notions.- 2. Bases.- 3. Linear manifolds.- 4. Convergence and norms.- 5. Topological notions in a normed space.- 6. Infinite series of vectors.- 7. Vector-valued functions.- 2. Linear forms and the adjoint space.- 1. Linear forms.- 2. The adjoint space.- 3. The adjoint basis.- 4. The adjoint space of a normed space.- 5. The convexity of balls.- 6. The second adjoint space.- 3. Linear operators.- 1. Definitions. Matrix representations.- 2. Linear operations on operators.- 3. The algebra of linear operators.- 4. Projections. Nilpotents.- 5. Invariance. Decomposition.- 6. The adjoint operator.- 4. Analysis with operators.- 1. Convergence and norms for operators.- 2. The norm of Tn.- 3. Examples of norms.- 4. Infinite series of operators.- 5. Operator-valued functions.- 6. Pairs of projections.- 5. The eigenvalue problem.- 1. Definitions.- 2. The resolvent.- 3. Singularities of the resolvent.- 4. The canonical form of an operator.- 5. The adjoint problem.- 6. Functions of an operator.- 7. Similarity transformations.- 6. Operators in unitary spaces.- 1. Unitary spaces.- 2. The adjoint space.- 3. Orthonormal families.- 4. Linear operators.- 5. Symmetric forms and symmetric operators.- 6. Unitary, isometric and normal operators.- 7. Projections.- 8. Pairs of projections.- 9. The eigenvalue problem.- 10. The minimax principle.- Two Perturbation theory in a finite-dimensional space.- 1. Analytic perturbation of eigenvalues.- 1. The problem.- 2. Singularities of the eigenvalues.- 3. Perturbation of the resolvent.- 4. Perturbation of the eigenprojections.- 5. Singularities of the eigenprojections.- 6. Remarks and examples.- 7. The case of T(x) linear in x.- 8. Summary.- 2. Perturbation series.- 1. The total projection for the ?-group.- 2. The weighted mean of eigenvalues.- 3. The reduction process.- 4. Formulas for higher approximations.- 5. A theorem of Motzkin-Taussky.- 6. The ranks of the coefficients of the perturbation series.- 3. Convergence radii and error estimates.- 1. Simple estimates.- 2. The method of majorizing series.- 3. Estimates on eigenvectors.- 4. Further error estimates.- 5. The special case of a normal unperturbed operator.- 6. The enumerative method.- . Similarity transformations of the eigenspaces and eigenvectors.- 1. Eigenvectors.- 2. Transformation functions.- 3. Solution of the differential equation.- 4. The transformation function and the reduction process.- 5. Simultaneous transformation for several projections.- 6. Diagonalization of a holomorphic matrix function.- 5. Non-analytic perturbations.- 1. Continuity of the eigenvalues and the total projection.- 2. The numbering of the eigenvalues.- 3. Continuity of the eigenspaces and eigenvectors.- 4. Differentiability at a point.- 5. Differentiability in an interval.- 6. Asymptotic expansion of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors.- 7. Operators depending on several parameters.- 8. The eigenvalues as functions of the operator.- 6. Perturbation of symmetric operators.- 1. Analytic perturbation of symmetric operators.- 2. Orthonormal families of eigenvectors.- 3. Continuity and differentiability.- 4. The eigenvalues as functions of the symmetric operator.- 5. Applications. A theorem of Lidskii.- Three Introduction to the theory of operators in Banach spaces.- 1. Banach spaces.- 1. Normed spaces.- 2. Banach spaces.- 3. Linear forms.- 4. The adjoint space.- 5. The principle of uniform boundedness.- 6. Weak convergence.- 7. Weak* convergence.- 8. The quotient space.- 2. Linear operators in Banach spaces.- 1. Linear operators. The domain and range.- 2. Continuity and boundedness.- 3. Ordinary differential operators of second order.- 3. Bounded operators.- 1. The space of bounded operators.- 2. The operator algebra ?(X).- 3. The adjoint operator.- 4. Projections.- 4. Compact operators.- 1. Definition.- 2. The space of compact operators.- 3. Degenerate operators. The trace and determinant.- 5. Closed operators.- 1. Remarks on unbounded operators.- 2. Closed operators.- 3. Closable operators.- 4. The closed graph theorem.- 5. The adjoint operator.- 6. Commutativity and decomposition.- 6. Resolvents and spectra.- 1. Definitions.- 2. The spectra of bounded operators.- 3. The point at infinity.- 4. Separation of the spectrum.- 5. Isolated eigenvalues.- 6. The resolvent of the adjoint.- 7. The spectra of compact operators.- 8. Operators with compact resolvent.- Four Stability theorems.- 1. Stability of closedness and bounded invertibility.- 1. Stability of closedness under relatively bounded perturbation.- 2. Examples of relative boundedness.- 3. Relative compactness and a stability theorem.- 4. Stability of bounded in vertibility.- 2. Generalized convergence of closed operators.- 1. The gap between subspaces.- 2. The gap and the dimension.- 3. Duality.- 4. The gap between closed operators.- 5. Further results on the stability of bounded in vertibility.- 6. Generalized convergence.- 3. Perturbation of the spectrum.- 1. Upper semicontinuity of the spectrum.- 2. Lower semi-discontinuity of the spectrum.- 3. Continuity and analyticity of the resolvent.- 4. Semicontinuity of separated parts of the spectrum.- 5. Continuity of a finite system of eigenvalues.- 6. Change of the spectrum under relatively bounded perturbation.- 7. Simultaneous consideration of an infinite number of eigenvalues.- 8. An application to Banach algebras. Wiener's theorem.- 4. Pairs of closed linear manifolds.- 1. Definitions.- 2. Duality.- 3. Regular pairs of closed linear manifolds.- 4. The approximate nullity and deficiency.- 5. Stability theorems.- 5. Stability theorems for semi-Fredholm operators.- 1. The nullity, deficiency and index of an operator.- 2. The general stability theorem.- 3. Other stability theorems.- 4. Isolated eigenvalues.- 5. Another form of the stability theorem.- 6. Structure of the spectrum of a closed operator.- 6. Degenerate perturbations.- 1. The Weinstein-Aronszajn determinants.- 2. The W-A formulas.- 3. Proof of the W-A formulas.- 4. Conditions excluding the singular case.- Five Operators in Hilbert spaces.- 1. Hilbert space.- 1. Basic notions.- 2. Complete orthonormal families.- 2. Bounded operators in Hilbert spaces.- 1. Bounded operators and their adjoints.- 2. Unitary and isometric operators.- 3. Compact operators.- 4. The Schmidt class.- 5. Perturbation of orthonormal families.- 3. Unbounded operators in Hilbert spaces.- 1. General remarks.- 2. The numerical range.- 3. Symmetric operators.- 4. The spectra of symmetric operators.- 5. The resolvents and spectra of selfadjoint operators.- 6. Second-order ordinary differential operators.- 7. The operators T*T.- 8. Normal operators.- 9. Reduction of symmetric operators.- 10. Semibounded and accretive operators.- 11. The square root of an m-accretive operator.- 4. Perturbation of self adjoint operators.- 1. Stability of selfadjointness.- 2. The case of relative bound 1.- 3. Perturbation of the spectrum.- 4. Semibounded operators.- 5. Completeness of the eigenprojections of slightly non-selfadjoint operators.- 5. The Schroedinger and Dirac operators.- 1. Partial differential operators.- 2. The Laplacian in the whole space.- 3. The Schroedinger operator with a static potential.- 4. The Dirac operator.- Six Sesquilinear forms in Hilbert spaces and associated operators.- 1. Sesquilinear and quadratic forms.- 1. Definitions.- 2. Semiboundedness.- 3. Closed forms.- 4. Closable forms.- 5. Forms constructed from sectorial operators.- 6. Sums of forms.- 7. Relative boundedness for forms and operators.- 2. The representation theorems.- 1. The first representation theorem.- 2. Proof of the first representation theorem.- 3. The Friedrichs extension.- 4. Other examples for the representation theorem.- 5. Supplementary remarks.- 6. The second representation theorem.- 7. The polar decomposition of a closed operator.- 3. Perturbation of sesquilinear forms and the associated operators.- 1. The real part of an m-sectorial operator.- 2. Perturbation of an m-sectorial operator and its resolvent.- 3. Symmetric unperturbed operators.- 4. Pseudo-Friedrichs extensions.- 4. Quadratic forms and the Schroedinger operators.- 1. Ordinary differential operators.- 2. The Dirichlet form and the Laplace operator.- 3. The Schroedinger operators in R3.- 4. Bounded regions.- 5. The spectral theorem and perturbation of spectral families.- 1. Spectral families.- 2. The selfadjoint operator associated with a spectral family.- 3. The spectral theorem.- 4. Stability theorems for the spectral family.- Seven Analytic perturbation theory.- 1. Analytic families of operators.- 1. Analyticity of vector- and operator-valued functions.- 2. Analyticity of a family of unbounded operators.- 3. Separation of the spectrum and finite systems of eigenvalues.- 4. Remarks on infinite systems of eigenvalues.- 5. Perturbation series.- 6. A holomorphic family related to a degenerate perturbation.- 2. Holomorphic families of type (A).- 1. Definition.- 2. A criterion for type (A).- 3. Remarks on holomorphic families of type (A).- 4. Convergence radii and error estimates.- 5. Normal unperturbed operators.- 3. Selfadjoint holomorphic families.- 1. General remarks.- 2. Continuation of the eigenvalues.- 3. The Mathieu, Schroedinger, and Dirac equations.- 4. Growth rate of the eigenvalues.- 5. Total eigenvalues considered simultaneously.- 4. Holomorphic families of type (B).- 1. Bounded-holomorphic families of sesquilinear forms.- 2. Holomorphic families of forms of type (a) and holomorphic families of operators of type (B).- 3. A criterion for type (B).- 4. Holomorphic families of type (B0).- 5. The relationship between holomorphic families of types (A) and (B).- 6. Perturbation series for eigenvalues and eigenprojections.- 7. Growth rate of eigenvalues and the total system of eigenvalues.- 8. Application to differential operators.- 9. The two-electron problem.- 5. Further problems of analytic perturbation theory.- 1. Holomorphic families of type (C).- 2. Analytic perturbation of the spectral family.- 3. Analyticity of |H(x)| and |H(x)|?.- 6. Eigenvalue problems in the generalized form.- 1. General considerations.- 2. Perturbation theory.- 3. Holomorphic families of type (A).- 4. Holomorphic families of type (B).- 5. Boundary perturbation.- Eight Asymptotic perturbation theory.- 1. Strong convergence in the generalized sense.- 1. Strong convergence of the resolvent.- 2. Generalized strong convergence and spectra.- 3. Perturbation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors.- 4. Stable eigenvalues.- 2. Asymptotic expansions.- 1. Asymptotic expansion of the resolvent.- 2. Remarks on asymptotic expansions.- 3. Asymptotic expansions of isolated eigenvalues and eigenvectors.- 4. Further asymptotic expansions.- 3. Generalized strong convergence of sectorial operators.- 1. Convergence of a sequence of bounded forms.- 2. Convergence of sectorial forms "from above".- 3. Nonincreasing sequences of symmetric forms.- 4. Convergence from below.- 5. Spectra of converging operators.- 4. Asymptotic expansions for sectorial operators.- 1. The problem. The zeroth approximation for the resolvent.- 2. The 1/2-order approximation for the resolvent.- 3. The first and higher order approximations for the resolvent.- 4. Asymptotic expansions for eigenvalues and eigenvectors.- 5. Spectral concentration.- 1. Unstable eigenvalues.- 2. Spectral concentration.- 3. Pseudo-eigenvectors and spectral concentration.- 4. Asymptotic expansions.- Nine Perturbation theory for semigroups of operators.- 1. One-parameter semigroups and groups of operators.- 1. The problem.- 2. Definition of the exponential function.- 3. Properties of the exponential function.- 4. Bounded and quasi-bounded semigroups.- 5. Solution of the inhomogeneous differential equation.- 6. Holomorphic semigroups.- 7. The inhomogeneous differential equation for a holomorphic semigroup.- 8. Applications to the heat and Schroedinger equations.- 2. Perturbation of semigroups.- 1. Analytic perturbation of quasi-bounded semigroups.- 2. Analytic perturbation of holomorphic semigroups.- 3. Perturbation of contraction semigroups.- 4. Convergence of quasi-bounded semigroups in a restricted sense.- 5. Strong convergence of quasi-bounded semigroups.- 6. Asymptotic perturbation of semigroups.- 3. Approximation by discrete semigroups.- 1. Discrete semigroups.- 2. Approximation of a continuous semigroup by discrete semigroups.- 3. Approximation theorems.- 4. Variation of the space.- Ten Perturbation of continuous spectra and unitary equivalence.- 1. The continuous spectrum of a selfadjoint operator.- 1. The point and continuous spectra.- 2. The absolutely continuous and singular spectra.- 3. The trace class.- 4. The trace and determinant.- 2. Perturbation of continuous spectra.- 1. A theorem of Weyl-von Neumann.- 2. A generalization.- 3. Wave operators and the stability of absolutely continuous spectra.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Generalized wave operators.- 3. A sufficient condition for the existence of the wave operator.- 4. An application to potential scattering.- 4. Existence and completeness of wave operators.- 1. Perturbations of rank one (special case).- 2. Perturbations of rank one (general case).- 3. Perturbations of the trace class.- 4. Wave operators for functions of operators.- 5. Strengthening of the existence theorems.- 6. Dependence of W+/- (H2, H1) on H1 and H2.- 5. A stationary method.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The ? operations.- 3. Equivalence with the time-dependent theory.- 4. The ? operations on degenerate operators.- 5. Solution of the integral equation for rank A = 1.- 6. Solution of the integral equation for a degenerate A.- 7. Application to differential operators.- Supplementary Notes.- Supplementary Bibliography.- Notation index.- Author index.

About the Author

Biography of Tosio Kato Tosio Kato was born in 1917 in a village to the north of Tokyo. He studied theoretical physics at the Imperial University of Tokyo. After several years of inactivity during World War II due to poor health, he joined the Faculty of Science at the University of Tokyo in 1951. From 1962 he was Professor of Mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley, where he is now Professor Emeritus. Kato was a pioneer in modern mathematical physics. He worked in te areas of operator theory, quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and partial differential equations, both linear and nonlinear.


"The monograph by T. Kato is an excellent textbook in the theory of linear operators in Banach and Hilbert spaces. It is a thoroughly worthwhile reference work both for graduate students in functional analysis as well as for researchers in perturbation, spectral, and scattering theory.
In chapters 1, 3, 5 operators in finite-dimensional vector spaces, Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces are introduced. Stability and perturbation theory are studied in finite-dimensional spaces (chapter 2) and in Banach spaces (chapter 4). Sesquilinear forms in Hilbert spaces are considered in detail (chapter 6), analytic and asymptotic perturbation theory is described (chapter 7 and 8). The fundamentals of semigroup theory are given in chapter 9. The supplementary notes appearing in the second edition of the book gave mainly additional information concerning scattering theory described in chapter 10.
The first edition is now 30 years old. The revised edition is 20 years old. Nevertheless it is a standard textbook for the theory of linear operators. It is user-friendly in the sense that any sought after definitions, theorems or proofs may be easily located. In the last two decades much progress has been made in understanding some of the topics dealt with in the book, for instance in semigroup and scattering theory. However the book has such a high didactical and scientific standard that I can recomment it for any mathematician or physicist interested in this field.
Zentralblatt MATH, 836

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