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Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience. Dale Purves ... [Et Al.]


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Table of Contents

1. Cognitive Neuroscience: Definitions, Themes, and ApproachesIntroductionCognition Natural philosophy and early psychology Behaviorism Cognitive scienceNeuroscienceCognitive Neuroscience: The Neurobiological Approach to CognitionMethods: Convergence and ComplementarityConclusions Box 1A. Convergence through Meta-analysis 2. The Methods of Cognitive NeuroscienceIntroductionBrain Perturbations That Elucidate Cognitive Functions Perturbations imposed by stroke, trauma, or disease Pharmacological perturbations Perturbation by intracranial brain stimulation Perturbation by extracranial brain stimulation OptogeneticsMeasuring Neural Activity during Cognitive Processing Direct electrophysiological recording from neurons Electroencephalography (EEG) Event-related potentials (ERPs) Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging Functional magnetic resonance imaging (functional MRI or fMRI) Using fMRI to analyze activation patterns within a brain area Using fMRI to examine activity relationships between brain areas Optical brain imagingAssembling Evidence and Delineating Mechanisms Associations and dissociations Multimethodological approaches Introductory box. Early Brain Mapping in Humans Box 2A. An Introduction to Structural Brain Imaging Techniques Box 2B. Imaging Structural Connections in the Brain Box 2C. Neuroimaging Genomics 3. Sensory Systems and Perception: VisionIntroductionVisual StimuliThe Initiation of VisionSubcortical Visual ProcessingCortical Visual ProcessingOther Key Characteristics of the Visual Cortex Topography Cortical magnification Cortical modularity Visual receptive fieldsVisual Perception Lightness and brightness Color Form Distance and depth Motion Object recognition Perceiving remembered images Introductory box. Prosopagnosia Box 3A. Synesthesia Box 3B. Measuring Perception Box 3C. The Inverse Problem 4. Sensory Systems and Perception: Auditory, Mechanical, and Chemical SensesIntroductionThe Auditory System Sound stimuli The peripheral auditory system The auditory cortices The perception of sound Perceiving the location of sound sourcesThe Mechanosensory Systems The cutaneous/subcutaneous system The pain systemThe Chemosensory Modalities The olfactory system The taste system Trigeminal chemosensationSome Final Points about Sensory Systems Coding and labeled lines The malleability of sensory circuitry Awareness of sensory stimuli The representation of sensory percepts Introductory box. The Remarkable Success of Cochlear Implants Box 4A. Measuring Loudness Box 4B. Music and Its Effects Box 4C. Somatosensory Illusions Box 4D. Phantom Limbs 5. Motor Systems: The Organization of ActionIntroductionMotor Control Is Hierarchical Anatomical organization of motor systemsCortical Pathways for Motor Control Organization of the primary motor cortex Movement maps in the primary motor cortexCoding Movements by the Activity of Neuronal PopulationsPlanning Movements Selecting goals for action Motivational control of goal selectionSequential Movements and the Supplementary Motor AreaSensory-Motor CoordinationInitiation of Movement by the Basal GangliaBasal Ganglia and CognitionError Correction and Motor Coordination by the CerebellumCerebellar Contributions to Cognitive Behavior Introductory box. Apraxia Box 5A. Reflexes, Central Pattern Generators, and Rhythmic Behaviors Box 5B. Motor Control of Facial Expressions Box 5C. Motor Systems and Interval Timing 6. Attention and Its Effects on Stimulus ProcessingIntroductionThe Concept of Attention Global states, arousal, and attention The selective nature of attentionBehavioral Studies of Attention Capacity and Selection The level at which selection occurs Endogenously versus exogenously driven selective attentionNeuroscience Approaches to Studying Attention Studying the neural effects of attention on stimulus processing Studying the control of attention in the brainNeural Effects of Attention on Stimulus Processing: Auditory Spatial Attention Electrophysiological studies of the effects of auditory spatial attention Neuroimaging studies of the effects of auditory spatial attention Animal studies of the effects of auditory spatial attention The effects of auditory spatial attention on auditory feature processingNeural Effects of Attention on Stimulus Processing: Visual Spatial Attention Electrophysiological studies of the effects of visual spatial attention Neuroimaging studies of the effects of visual spatial attention Combining electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies of visual spatial attention Animal studies of the effects of visual spatial attention The effects of visual spatial attention on visual feature processingNeural Effects of Attending to Nonspatial Stimulus Attributes The neural effects of attention to nonspatial auditory features The neural effects of attention to nonspatial visual features The effects of visual attention to objectsNeural Effects of Attention across Sensory Modalities Introductory box. The Cocktail Party Effect Box 6A. The Attentional Blink and Late Attentional Selection Box 6B. Attention-Related 7. The Control of AttentionIntroductionClinical Evidence for Brain Regions Involved in Attentional ControlControl of Voluntary Attention Activation in frontal and parietal cortex during endogenous attentional tasks Delineating the role of the frontoparietal network in the control of attention Ascertaining the temporal flow of brain activations underlying attentional control Single-neuron recordings in frontal and parietal cortex during attentional control Preparatory activation of sensory cortices during attentional controlControl of Exogenously Induced Changes in Attention Attentional shifts triggered by sudden stimulus onsets Attentional reorienting activates a ventral frontoparietal systemVisual Search Behavioral studies of visual search Theoretical models of visual search Neural processes underlying visual searchAttentional Control as a System of Interacting Brain AreasInteractions between Components of the Attentional SystemGenerality of Attentional Control SystemsAttention, Levels of Arousal, and Consciousness Sleep and wakefulness Consciousness Neural correlates of consciousness in normal subjects Neural correlates of consciousness in pathological conditions Introductory box. Hemispatial Neglect Syndrome Box 7A. The Default-Mode Network 8. Memory: Varieties and MechanismsIntroductionMemory Phases, Processes, Systems, and TasksDissociating Memory Systems Working memory versus declarative memory Declarative versus nondeclarative memoryNondeclarative MemoryPriming Perceptual priming Conceptual priming Semantic priming Repetition enhancementSkill Learning Motor skill learning Perceptual skill learning Cognitive skill learningConditioningCellular Mechanisms of Memory Habituation and sensitization Long-term potentiation and depression Linking LTP to memory performance Learning-related changes in synaptic morphology Introductory box. The Case of H.M. Box 8A. Investigating Declarative Memory in Non-Human Animals Box 8B. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions beyond Declarative Memory Box 8C. Connectionist Models 9. Declarative MemoryIntroductionBasic Concepts and Assumptions A taxonomy of declarative memory A simple neurological model of encoding, storage, and retrieval Using the model to explain the effects of brain damageThe Nature of Medial Temporal Lobe Representations Theories of hippocampal memory function Differences between medial temporal lobe subregionsCortical Regions Storing Semantic and Episodic Memory Representations The organization of semantic knowledge in the cortex The reactivation of cortical regions for recent episodic memoriesContributions of the Prefrontal Cortex to Encoding and Retrieval Functional neuroimaging of episodic encoding Functional neuroimaging of episodic retrieval Effects of frontal lobe lesionsContributions of the Posterior Parietal Cortex to Encoding and Retrieval The role of posterior parietal cortex during retrieval The role of posterior parietal cortex during encodingMemory Consolidation Synaptic versus system consolidation Theories of system consolidation in declarative memory Consolidation, reactivation, and sleep Introductory box. Developmental Amnesia Box 9A. Organization of the Medial Temporal Lobe Memory System Box 9B. Functional Neuroimaging Methods to Study Episodic Memory Box 9C. ERP Studies of Episodic Retrieval 10. EmotionIntroductionWhat Is Emotion?Psychological Classification of Emotions Categorical theories Dimensional theories Component process theoriesEarly Neurobiological Theories of Emotion The James-Lange feedback theory The Cannon-Bard diencephalic theory The Papez circuit and Kluver-Bucy syndrome The limbic system theory and its challengesContemporary Approaches to Studying the Neurobiology of Emotion Hemispheric-asymmetry hypotheses Vertical integration models: Fear acquisition Vertical integration models: Fear modification Interoception and the somatic marker hypothesis In search of categories of emotional experienceInteractions with Other Cognitive Functions Emotional influences on perception and attention Emotional influences on memory consolidationRegulation of Emotion Introductory box. The Neuroscience and Neuroethics of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Box 10A. Psychophysiology and the Brain-Body Link Box 10B. Stress and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Adrenal Axis 11. Social CognitionIntroductionThe Self Self-reflection EmbodimentPerception of Social Cues Evident in the Face and Body Face perception Perception of biological motion Interpersonal attention and action directionSocial Categorization Perception of social category information Stereotypes and automatic racial biases Monitoring and controlling racial bias Impression formation and trustUnderstanding the Actions and Emotions of Others Mirror neurons Perspective taking and mental-state attribution Theory of mind in children and apes Empathy, sympathy, and prosocial behaviorSocial Competition Social rank and stress Power motivation and dominance contests Introductory box. Autism Box 11A. Measuring Implicit and Explicit Racial Attitudes Box 11B. Social Bonds and Kinship 12. LanguageIntroductionSpeech Producing speech Comprehending speech Interpreting speech sounds Sentences, grammar, and syntax The importance of contextAcquiring Speech and Language Learning a vocabulary The shaping of phonemes and phones A critical period for language acquisition Mechanisms of language learning Effects of language deprivationTheories of Language Is there a Connectionist theoryThe Neural Bases of Language Neural bases for producing speech and language Neural bases for comprehending language Additional evidence from neurosurgery Contributions of the right hemisphere to languageNoninvasive Studies of Language Organization Evidence that the neural basis of language is fundamentally symbolicGenetic Determination of Language FunctionsIs Human Language Unique? The Origins of Human Language Introductory box. Dyslexia Box 12A. Representing Speech Sounds in Written Form Box 12B. Language, Handedness, and Cerebral Dominance Box 12C. Representing Number Box 12D. Learned Vocal Communication in Non-human Species 13. Executive Functions IntroductionA Taxonomy of Executive FunctionPrefrontal Cortex: A Key Contributor to Executive Function Organization and connectivity of the prefrontal cortex Consequences of damage to the prefrontal cortexEstablishing and Modifying Behavioral Rules Initiating rules for behavior Inhibiting rules for behavior Inhibiting socially inappropriate behaviors Shifting among rules for behavior Relating rules to create higher-order models of the world Hierarchical models for executive functionControl: Matching Behavior to Context Conflict monitoring Challenges to the conflict-monitoring model Functional organization of dorsomedial prefrontal cortexWorking Memory: Maintaining Information and Rules over Time Neural substrates of working memory Introductory box. Environmental Dependency Syndrome Box 13A. Comparative Anatomy of the Prefrontal Cortex Box 13B. The Neurobiology of Intelligence Box 13C. Reasoning 14. Decision MakingIntroductionDecision Making: From Rational Choice to Behavioral EconomicsReward and Utility Dopamine: Pleasure or motivation? Reward prediction error Responses to negative outcomesUncertainty: Risk, Ambiguity, and Delay Risk and ambiguity Delay: Discounting future rewardsSocial Context Social rewards Social cooperation Social punishmentIntegration: Combining and Comparing Information to Reach a Decision Perceptual decision making Value-based decision makingHeuristics in Decision MakingFuture Directions Introductory box. Addiction to Gambling Box 14A. Learning Values and Forming Habits Box 14B. Modeling Simple Decisions Box 14C. Neuromarketing 15. Evolution and Development of Brain and CognitionIntroductionEarly Thinking about the Evolution and Development of CognitionEarly Brain Development Neuronal differentiation and myelination The development of neural connectionsLinking Brain and Cognitive Development Brain size and the evolution of cognition Relative brain size and cerebral complexityEvolution of Brain DevelopmentEvolutionary Specializations of Brain and Behavior Evolution and development of learning and memory Evolution and development of quantitative cognition Evolution and development of social cognition Evolution and development of language Introductory box. Savant Syndrome Box 15A. Darwin and the Brain Box 15B. Brain Differences in Modern Humans: Implications for Cognition Box 15C. Evolution of Human Brain and Cognition Evident in the Fossil Record APPENDIX. The Human Nervous SystemCellular Components of the Nervous SystemNerve Cells and Their Signaling FunctionsFunctional Organization of the Human Nervous System Neural circuits Neural systemsStructural Organization of the Human Nervous SystemMajor Subdivisions of the Central Nervous System The brainstem The spinal cord Surface features of the brain Internal features of the brain The ventricular systemThe Brain's Blood Supply Box A1. Intracellular Recording from Nerve Cells Box A2. Organization of the Cerebral Cortex Box A3. Anatomical Terminology Glossary Illustration Credits Index

About the Author

Dale Purves is Director of the Neuroscience and Behavioural Disorders program at Duke's Graduate Medical School and Executive Director of the Neuroscience Research Partnership at A*STAR (both located in Singapore).Kevin S. LaBar is Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at the Duke University School of Medicine.Michael L. Platt is Professor of Neurobiology at the Duke University School of Medicine and Director of the Duke Institute for Brain Science.Marty Woldorff is Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at the Duke University School of Medicine.Roberto Cabeza is Professor of Psychology & Neuroscience at Duke University.Scott A. Huettel is Professor of Psychology & Neuroscience and Director of the Duke Center for Interdisciplinary Decision Science.


"This textbook is an ideal introductory text for advanced undergraduates or graduate students studying cognitive neuroscience. I applaud the authors for creating a book that is not only educational but also enjoyable to read--something that cannot be said about most textbooks. Any instructor of an introductory cognitive neuroscience course, advanced and inquisitive undergraduate, or beginning researcher will likely find this text to be a valuable resource."--Amber Baysinger, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine

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