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Public Service Ethics


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Table of Contents

List of Tables, Figures, and Exhibits Preface Acknowledgments About the Authors I. Foundations of Public Service Ethics 1. Pertinence, Practicality, and Poppycock Pertinence: Reasons to Study Ethics Practicality: Commitment as a Privilege and Obligation Poppycock: Myths About Ethics Conclusion Appendix 1.1 Personal Checklist 2. Perspectives on Ethics: Macro, Meso, Micro Levels of Analysis Contemporary Research on Levels of Ethics Meso Level of Analysis: The Organization Micro Level of Analysis: The Individual Factors Influencing Meso-Micro Ethics Conclusion Case Study 2.1 The Pennsylvania State University Athletic Sex Abuse Scandal 3. Values, Ethics, and Dilemmas Defining Values Applying Values in Public Service Defining Ethics Domains of Human Action: Law vs. Free Choice Case Study 3.1 Challenge the Leader Social Forces Endangering Ethics Case Study 3.2 Value Conflicts in World Affairs Conclusion II. Individual-Centered Approaches to Ethics 4. Moral Development Theory Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory: A Rational Approach Case Study 4.1 Applying Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development Milgram's Shock and Zimbardo's Prison Experiments: Ethics Under Pressure Haidt's Social Intuitionalist Approach Conclusion 5. Cognitive Ethics Methods: Result and Rule Problem-Solving Approaches Approaches to Ethics A Five-Stage Method for Analyzing Ethical Issues Moral Courage Case Study 5.1 Applying the Kew Gardens Principles Applying the Five-stage Method: A Personal and Professional Conflict Conclusion Appendix 5.1 Sensitivity-Intensity Matrix Approach Appendix 5.2 The Ethical Principles Approach Case Study 5.2 Applying the Ethical Principles Approach: Playing Poker With a Vendor Appendix 5.3 Line Drawing Case Study 5.3 Applying the Line Drawing Method: A Questionable Gift 6. Virtue Theory Comparing Cognitive and Virtue Ethics The Vocabulary of Virtue Habituation: The Formation of Character Virtue Theory Strengths and Weaknesses Case Study 6.1 Applying Rion's Ethical Decision-Making Framework: Probing the Conscience Utility of Virtue Ethics for Managers: Challenge and Response Conclusion 7. Conscious Deliberation and Subconscious Action: The Dishonesty of Honest People Results, Rule, Virtue: Decision Making With the Ethics Triad Utilizing the Ethics Triad Case Study 7.1 The Ethics Triad: Applying the Rational Approach to a Birthday Invitation Behavioral Ethics: What People Do vs. What They Say They Do Conclusion Appendix 7.1 Critiquing Student Case Analyses III. Institutional Approaches to Ethics 8. Organizational Ethics Types of Organizational Strategies Ethical Infrastructure: Building Blocks in Ethics Management Case Study 8.1 Applying Philosophical and Behavioral Ethics Approaches: To Follow or Not to Follow Government Hiring Policy Organizational Structure Values Statements Psychological Contracts Oaths and Codes Institutionalizing Ethics Cultural Competency Conclusion 9. Corruption Control Scope and Magnitude of Corruption Today Defining Corruption Causes of Corruption and Evolution of Anticorruption Strategies Individual and Institutional Moral Failure Scandals: Types and Impacts Avenues for Reform Case Study 9.1 Applying Philosophical and Behavioral Ethics Approaches: Public to Private Employment on Similar Work Conclusion 10. Whistleblowing in Organizations Significance of Whistleblowing Case Study 10.1 Problem Solver or Trouble Maker? Whistleblower Laws Case Study 10.2 Applying Rational and Behavioral Ethics Approaches: Cooking the Books Dissent in Organizations Case Study 10.3 The Silent Whistle Case Study 10.4 Successful Whistleblowing Trends in Blowing the Whistle Conclusion IV. Issues in Public Service Ethics 11. Ethics and Elected Officials Case Study 11.1 Congressional Conflict of Interest Case Study 11.2 Congressional Insider Trading Ethics and Legislative Decision Making Case Study 11.3 Robert Torricelli and the CIA The Influence of Character and Roles on Elected Officials Polarization of Politics and Ethical Implications Negative Campaigning The Problem of Dirty Hands Case Study 11.4 Applying Philosophical and Behavioral Ethics Approaches: Interrogation Methods Presidents and Truthfulness The Influence of Citizens and the Media on Politicians Case Study 11.5 Applying Philosophical and Behavioral Ethics Approaches: A Transgender City Manager Conclusion Appendix 11.1 Ethics Committees 12. Organizational Gaming and Performance Measurement Duplicity Pressures Case Study 12.1 Organizational Cheating in Education Types of Gaming Cheating, Politicians, and Public Opinion Ethically Evaluating and Minimizing Cheating Case Study 12.2 Applying Philosophical and Behavioral Ethics Approaches: Electronic Surveillance in the Workplace Conclusion 13. At-Will Employment The Employment At-Will Doctrine Applying the Ethics Triad to At-Will Employment Summary and Conclusion 14. Open Government Case Study: Pay Disclosure Trends and Tensions in Open Government Background: Increasing Demand for Transparency Applying the Ethics Triad to Pay Disclosure Summary Conclusion: Implementing Balance in Transparency Policy V. Future History 15. Choices and Strategies for the Years Ahead Moral Grandeur Moral Decay New Challenges Guidelines for Ethical Conduct Case Study 15.1 Applying Rational and Philosophical Ethics Approaches: Drones in Domestic Law Enforcement Appendix 15.1 Sample Graduate Student Action Plan Index

About the Author

James S. Bowman is a professor of public administration at the Askew School of Public Administration and Policy, Florida State University. Noted for this work in ethics and human resource management, Dr. Bowman is author of over 100 journal articles and book chapters, as well as editor of six anthologies. He is co-author of The Professional Edge: Competencies in Public Service (2nd ed., Sharpe, 2010) and Public Service Ethics: Individual and Institutional Responsibilities (CQ Press, 2015). For nearly two decades, he served as editor-in-chief of Public Integrity, a journal owned by the American Society for Public Administration. A past National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration Fellow, as well as a Kellogg Foundation Fellow, he has experience in the military, civil service, and business. Jonathan P. West is a professor and chair of political science and director of the graduate public administration program at the University of Miami. His research interests include ethics, public administration, and human resource management. He has published over 100 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters as well as nine books. He is co-author of Public Service Ethics: Individual and Institutional Perspectives (CQ Press, 2015) American Politics and the Environment (2nd. Ed., SUNY Press, 2015) and The Professional Edge: Competencies in Public Service (2nd ed., Sharpe, 2010.) For nearly two decades he has been managing editor of the Public Integrity journal. He served as a Captain in the U.S. Army as a management analyst in the Office of the Surgeon General.


Public Service Ethics: Individual and Institutional Responsibilities is superior to other ethics texts I've used -- I was hooked from the opening pages. Bowman and West do an admirable job of both building a coherent picture of ethical public management and providing students with a robust toolkit for making ethical decisions in a variety of settings. The authors thoroughly cover the essential topics and problems in public service ethics, and bring the theories and techniques of ethical management into sharp focus through compelling practical examples. Students are given ample opportunities to apply concepts and lessons from the text through a variety of well-developed exercises; case studies that illustrate real ethical problems confronting public managers bring the book's material to life. With its rich substantive content, current examples, and lively writing, this text is a compelling read and a welcome new development for public service ethics.-- Aaron Wachhaus
Public Service Ethics: Individual and Institutional Responsibilities is a fabulous book. The overall coverage is terrific, especially in response to new challenges in public service. Bowman and West combine contemporary and timely research, issues, examples, and case studies; yet they also convey an awareness of the enduring ethical dilemmas at the heart of public service. The book has a nice blend of the theory and history of public service ethics, and includes practical strategies that will be very helpful to students as they build their way to an individualized approach to the challenges they face in their careers. A groundbreaking text.-- Kate Forhan

Bowman and West's Public Service Ethics: Individual and Institutional Responsibilities speaks directly to the ethical issues faced by public sector managers. The book fits amazingly well with the way I teach ethics. The authors make a compelling argument for the study of ethics and effectively integrate their ideas throughout the book. The writing is lively and engaging, and will appeal to students and working professionals because it is not pretentious and pious-as are some works on the subject of ethics. The book's many strengths may be found in its well written exercises and study questions. This text encourages students to become reflective scholars, which fits hand-in-glove with my teaching style. -- Ramona Ortega-Liston
Public Service Ethics: Individual and Institutional Responsibilities is a pleasure to read, and provides appropriately balanced coverage of the topic. Bowman and West's argument is persuasive, and the logical organization of their text clearly and effectively communicates the way public managers can use their understanding of personal ethics and societal ethics to build organizational ethics. I especially like their discussion of how "macro," "meso," and "micro" levels of ethical analysis relate to each other. Readers will find the book's analytic approach both engaging and illuminating. -- Dan Feldman
Public Service Ethics: Individual and Institutional Responsibilities will serve as a great resource for my students. Bowman and West's approach to ethics is well developed and balanced, and evokes both reflection and analysis. The text is particularly strong on presenting empirical evidence of ethics practices and how effective or ineffective they are; and for buttressing pro and con positions on ethical issues. Discussions of moral development theory, corruption, and the ethics of elected and appointed officials -- topics that are usually not well developed in other ethics texts -- are especially valuable. The authors also offer many useful analytic tools and methods for engaging in ethical analysis, with numerous real-world examples and cases that effectively illustrate the key points in each chapter.

-- Richard Green
This book represents a considerable accomplishment in a field where there??? are inevitably many loose ends and where new ethical problems increasingly confront public of??ficials. It provides a coherent and integrated relationship between theory and practice, a framework for analysis, and illustrations of the way in which analytical tools may be employed to deal with ethical dilemmas. It makes a signi????ficant new contribution to the study of administrative ethics.??? -- Ian Scott, Department of Public Policy, City University of Hong Kong

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