Chapter 1. Nutrients and Recommended Intakes Function of Nutrients Carbohydrate Fat Protein Water Alcohol Vitamins, Minerals, and Trace Elements Phytonutrients Recommended Intakes of Nutrients Development of Recommended Intakes Current Recommended Intakes Analyzing Dietary Intake Chapter 2. Healthy Eating Health Effects of Consuming Excess Amounts of Nutrients Practical Guidelines for a Balanced, Healthy Diet Recommendations for a Healthy Diet and Lifestyle Nutrition Facts Labels Nutrient Content and Health Claims on Food Packaging Processed Food and Additives Fat Substitutes Chapter 3. Fuel Sources for Muscle and Exercise Metabolism Subcellular Skeletal Muscle Structure Force Generation in Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types Energy for Muscle Force Generation Fuel Stores in Skeletal Muscle Regulation of Energy Metabolism Metabolic Responses to Exercise Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise Training Chapter 4. Energy Energetic Efficiency Measuring the Energy Content of Food Measuring Energy Expenditure Components of Energy Expenditure Energy Balance Chapter 5. Gastric Emptying, Digestion, and Absorption Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract Regulation of the Gastrointestinal Tract Digestion Absorption Gut Microbiota Regulation of Gastric Emptying Gastrointestinal Problems During and After Exercise Chapter 6. Carbohydrate History Role of Carbohydrate Recommendations for Carbohydrate Intake Carbohydrate Intake in the Days Before Competition Carbohydrate Intake in the Hours Before Exercise Carbohydrate Intake 30 to 60 Minutes Before Exercise Carbohydrate Intake During Exercise Carbohydrate Intake After Exercise Chapter 7. Fat Fat Metabolism During Exercise Limits to Fat Oxidation Fat as a Fuel During Exercise Regulation of Carbohydrate and Fat Metabolism Fat Supplementation and Exercise Effects of Diet on Fat Metabolism and Performance Chapter 8. Protein and Amino Acids Amino Acids Techniques to Study Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism Protein Requirements for Exercise Training and Protein Metabolism Effect of Protein Intake on Protein Synthesis Amino Acids as Ergogenic Aids Protein Intake and Health Risks Chapter 9. Water Requirements and Fluid Balance Thermoregulation and Exercise in the Heat Effects of Dehydration on Exercise Performance Mechanisms of Heat Illness Effects of Fluid Intake on Exercise Performance Daily Water Balance Fluid Requirements for Athletes Chapter 10. Vitamins and Minerals Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins Recommended Intakes of Vitamins Recommended Intakes of Vitamins for Athletes Macrominerals and Microminerals Recommended Intakes of Minerals Critical Micronutrient Functions Assessing Micronutrient Status Exercise and Micronutrient Requirements Ergogenic Effect of Micronutrient Supplementation Summary of Recommendations for Micronutrient Intake in Athletes Chapter 11. Nutrition Supplements Relative Importance of Supplements to a Normal Diet Nonregulation of Nutrition Supplements Critical Evaluation of Nutrition Supplements Studies Androstenedione Bee Pollen Beetroot Juice Beta Alanine and Carnosine Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate Boron Caffeine Carnitine Cherry Juice Choline Chromium Coenzyme Q10 Creatine Dehydroepiandrosterone Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Ginseng Glandulars Glycerol Green Tea Inosine Ketone Salts Lactate Salts and Polylactate Lecithin Medium-Chain Triacylglycerol Pangamic Acid Phosphatidylserine Phosphorus and Phosphate Salts Polyphenols Pyruvate and Dihydroxyacetone Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Citrate Sodium Nitrate Vanadium Wheat Germ Oil Additive Effects of Combining Different Supplements Contamination of Nutrition Supplements Chapter 12. Nutrition and Training Adaptations Training Adaptations Signal Transduction Pathways Starting a Signaling Cascade Secondary Signals Nutrition and Effects on Training Adaptations Overreaching and the Overtraining Syndrome Nutrition and Effects on Sleep Nutrition and Effects on Rehabilitation Chapter 13. Nutrition and Immune Function in Athletes Functions of the Immune System and Its Cellular Components General Mechanism of the Immune Response Causes of Illness in Athletes Effects of Exercise on the Immune System Nutritional Manipulations to Decrease Immunodepression in Athletes Conclusions and Recommendations Chapter 14. Body Composition Optimal Body Weight and Composition Body Composition Models Normal Ranges of Body Weight and Body Fat Body Composition Measurement Techniques Chapter 15. Weight Management Genetics Energy and Macronutrient Intake Regulation of Appetite Effect of Exercise on Appetite Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure Dietary Weight-Loss Methods Exercise for Weight Loss Decreased Resting Metabolic Rate With Weight Loss Weight Cycling Gender Differences in Weight Loss Practicalities of Weight Loss for Athletes Weight Gain Chapter 16. Eating Disorders in Athletes Types of Eating Disorders Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Athletes Effects of Eating Disorders on Sports Performance Effects of Eating Disorders on Health Treatment and Prevention of Eating Disorders Chapter 17. Personalized Nutrition Genetic Influences Turning Science Into Practice Specific Populations Nutrition Application in Different Sport Situations and Populations Appendix A. Key Concepts in Biological Chemistry Relevant to Sport Nutrition Appendix B. Unit Conversion Tables Appendix C. Recommended Daily Allowances for North America Appendix D. Reference Nutrient Intakes for the United Kingdom Appendix E. Recommended Dietary Intakes for Australia and New Zealand
Asker Jeukendrup, PhD, is a professor at Loughborough University in the United Kingdom, the director of the Mysportscience performance consulting firm, and cofounder and co-CEO of CORE Nutrition Planning. After obtaining his degrees at Maastricht University in the Netherlands, he spent a year at the University of Texas at Austin before accepting a position at the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom. At the University of Birmingham, he served for 12 years as the director of the Human Performance Laboratory, heading up the exercise metabolism research group. His research focused on the metabolic responses to exercise, the regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise, adaptations to training, and the influence of nutrition on metabolism and exercise nutrition. He is considered a leading expert in the general areas of sports nutrition, training and overtraining, and recovery. Jeukendrup received several awards for his achievements, including the Danone Chair at the University of Brussels in 2005. In 2011 he accepted a position as global senior director of exercise physiology at the Gatorade Sports Science Institute, defining strategies for research, education, and sport science services for the largest sports nutrition company in the world. He is a registered sport and exercise nutritionist, having worked with many elite athletes and clubs, including the Rabobank, Lotto-Soudal, and Lotto-Jumbo professional cycling teams; Chelsea Football Club; FC Barcelona; Red Bull Salzburg; UK Athletics; the British Olympic Association; African runners; and several Olympic and world champions. He is currently nutrition performance manager for the Dutch Olympic Committee and head of performance nutrition for the Lotto-Jumbo professional cycling team. Jeukendrup has published extensively in sport nutrition. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and the European College of Sport Science. In his leisure time, he enjoys running, cycling, and competing in triathlons. To date, he has completed 21 Ironman-distance races, including the Ironman Hawaii six times. Michael Gleeson, PhD, is a professor of exercise biochemistry in the School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences at Loughborough University in Leicestershire, United Kingdom. Gleeson is considered a world authority on exercise biochemistry, immunology, and nutrition, and he has worked with numerous world-class athletes and professional football clubs. He has taught sport nutrition at the university level and has published several books and over 250 scientific articles in scientific and medical journals. He has a particular interest and expertise in the effects of exercise, training, and nutrition on immune function. Gleeson has been both president and vice president of the International Society of Exercise and Immunology. He is a fellow of the European College of Sport Science and a member of the American College of Sports Medicine, the Physiological Society, and the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences. Gleeson enjoys playing tennis, hill walking, and watching football and films.