Introduction Chapter 1. Mobilizing Visible Learning for Literacy Visible Learning for Literacy Components of Effective Literacy Learning Knowledge of How Children Learn Developmental View of Learning Meaningful Experiences and Social Interaction Surface, Deep, and Transfer Learning Phases of Reading Development Phases of Writing Development Formats and Scheduling Time Organization Across a Week Across Content Areas Spotlight on Three Teachers Conclusion Chapter 2. Teacher Clarity Understanding Expectations in Standards Learning Intentions in the Language Arts Student Ownership of Learning Intentions Connecting Learning Intentions to Prior Knowledge Make Learning Intentions Inviting and Engaging Social Learning Intentions Success Criteria in Language Arts Success Criteria Are Crucial for Motivation Conclusion Chapter 3. Direct Instruction Relevance Teacher Modeling Pair With Think-Alouds The "I" and "Why" of Think-Alouds Students Should Think Aloud, Too Checking for Understanding Use Questions to Probe Student Thinking Guided Instruction Formative Evaluation During Guided Instruction Independent Learning Fluency Building Application Spiral Review Extension Closure Conclusion Chapter 4. Teacher-Led Dialogic Instruction Effective Talk, Not Just Any Talk Foster Deep Learning and Transfer Listen Carefully Facilitate and Guide Discussion Teacher-Led Tools for Dialogic Instruction Anticipation Guides Guided Reading Write Dialogically With Shared Writing Language Experience Approach Interactive Writing Close and Critical Reading Conclusion Chapter 5. Student-Led Dialogic Learning The Value of Student-to-Student Discussion The Social and Behavioral Benefits of Peer-Assisted Learning Fostering Collaborative Discussions Teach Children to Develop Their Own Questions Student-Led Tools for Dialogic Learning Fishbowl Collaborative Reasoning Gallery Walks Literature Circles Readers Theatre Reciprocal Teaching Peer Tutoring Conclusion Chapter 6. Independent Learning Finding Flow Learning Words Independently Independently Working With Words Open and Closed Concept Word Sorts Vocabulary Cards Spelling Words Acquisition Retention Automaticity Word Games Building Fluent Readers Reading Into Recorder Neurological Impress Model Independent Reading Independent Writing Power Writing Extended Writing Prompts Big Ideas About Independent Learning Does It Promote Metacognition? Does It Promote Goal-Setting? Does It Promote Self-Regulation? Conclusion Chapter 7. Tools to Use in Determining Literacy Impact Do You Know Your Impact? Do You Know Your Collective Impact? ASSESSING READING Assessing Emergent and Early Readers Language Comprehension Decoding Early Language Learning Assessments Concepts About Print Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation Sight Words Retellings Decoding Assessments Letter Identification Phonics Assessing Reading of Meaningful Text Miscue Analysis Assessing Developing Readers Assessing Reading Comprehension Informal Reading Inventories Cloze Procedure Reading Fluency Metacomprehension Strategies Index Assessing Attitudes Toward Reading Elementary Reading Attitude Survey ASSESSING WRITING Assessing Spelling Assessing Writing Fluency Assessing Writing Holistically Literacy Design Collaborative Student Work Rubrics Assessing Writing Attitude and Motivation Writing Attitude Survey Why Assess? Know Your Impact Conclusion Compendium of Assessments Appendix: Effect Sizes References Index
Douglas Fisher, Ph.D., is Professor and Chair of Educational Leadership at San Diego State University and a leader at Health Sciences High & Middle College having been an early intervention teacher and elementary school educator. He is the recipient of an International Reading Association William S. Grey citation of merit, an Exemplary Leader award from the Conference on English Leadership of NCTE, as well as a Christa McAuliffe award for excellence in teacher education. He has published numerous articles on reading and literacy, differentiated instruction, and curriculum design as well as books, such as PLC+: Better Decisions and Greater Impact by Design, Building Equity, and Assessment-capable Learners. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org. Nancy Frey, Ph.D., is a Professor in Educational Leadership at San Diego State University and a leader at Health Sciences High and Middle College. She has been a special education teacher, reading specialist, and administrator in public schools. Nancy has engaged in Professional Learning Communities as a member and in designing schoolwide systems to improve teaching and learning for all students. She has published numerous books, including The Teacher Clarity Playbook and Rigorous Reading. John Hattie, Ph.D., is an award-winning education researcher and best-selling author with nearly 30 years of experience examining what works best in student learning and achievement. His research, better known as Visible Learning, is a culmination of nearly 30 years synthesizing more than 1,500 meta-analyses comprising more than 90,000 studies involving over 300 million students around the world. He has presented and keynoted in over 350 international conferences and has received numerous recognitions for his contributions to education. His notable publications include Visible Learning, Visible Learning for Teachers, Visible Learning and the Science of How We Learn, Visible Learning for Mathematics, Grades K-12, and, most recently, 10 Mindframes for Visible Learning.