Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv About the Editors xvii About the Contributors xix 1 Introduction: How Play Therapy Causes Therapeutic Change 1 Athena A. Drewes and Charles E. Schaefer Therapeutic Factors 1 Therapeutic Powers of Play 2 How Best to Use the Material in This Book 4 References 6 Part I Facilitates Communication 9 2 Self-Expression 11 Mary Morrison Bennett and Stephanie Eberts Why Is Self-Expression Therapeutic? 11 Empirical Support of the Power of Self-Expression in Play Therapy 14 Role of Self-Expression in Facilitating Change 15 Strategies and Techniques in Facilitating Self-Expression 16 Applications 21 Clinical Vignettes 21 Summary 23 References 23 3 Access to the Unconscious 25 David Crenshaw and Kathleen Tillman Introduction 25 The Power of Play Therapy to Access the Unconscious 26 Empirical Support 27 The Role of Accessing the Unconscious in Causing Change 28 Strategies and Techniques 29 Clinical Applications and Clinical Vignettes 33 Summary 36 References 37 4 Direct Teaching 39 Theresa Fraser Introduction 39 Role of Direct Teaching in Causing Change 40 Strategies and Techniques 42 Empirical Support 43 Clinical Applications 44 Vignette 45 Summary 48 References 48 5 Indirect Teaching 51 Aideen Taylor de Faoite Introduction 51 Indirect Teaching 52 Empirical Support 53 Role of Indirect Teaching in Causing Change 56 Strategies and Techniques 59 Clinical Applications and Vignettes 61 Conclusion 66 References 67 Part II Fosters Emotional Wellness 69 6 Catharsis 71 Athena A. Drewes and Charles E. Schaefer Introduction 71 Description of Catharsis 72 Empirical Support 73 Role of Catharsis in Causing Change 74 Clinical Applications 75 Techniques 76 Contraindications 77 Clinical Vignettes 78 References 79 7 Abreaction 83 Eileen Prendiville Introduction 83 Description of Abreaction 85 Empirical Support 87 Role of Abreaction in Causing Change 89 Strategies and Techniques 92 Clinical Applications and Clinical Vignettes 94 References 98 8 Positive Emotions 103 Terry Kottman Introduction 103 Description of Positive Emotion 104 Empirical Support 107 Role of Positive Emotion in Causing Change 111 Strategies and Techniques 113 Clinical Applications and Clinical Vignettes 115 References 117 9 Counterconditioning Fears 121 Tammi Van Hollander Description of Counterconditioning Fears 121 The Role of Counterconditioning Fears in Causing Change 122 Play Strategies and Techniques 122 Empirical Support 124 Clinical Applications 125 Case Vignettes 125 Conclusion 129 References 129 10 Stress Inoculation 131 Angela M. Cavett Description of Stress Inoculation 131 Empirical Support for Stress Inoculation 133 Role of Stress Inoculation in Causing Change 134 Strategies and Techniques 136 Clinical Vignettes 136 Conclusion 139 References 140 11 Stress Management 143 Kristin S. Bemis Introduction 143 Description of Stress Management 144 Empirical Support 145 Role of Stress Management in Causing Change 146 Strategies and Techniques 148 Clinical Applications and Clinical Vignettes 149 References 152 Part III Enhances Social Relationships 155 12 Therapeutic Relationship 157 Anne L. Stewart and Lennis G. Echterling Introduction 157 Description of the Therapeutic Relationship 157 Empirical Support 159 Role of the Therapeutic Relationship in Causing Change 160 Strategies and Techniques 161 Clinical Applications and Clinical Vignettes 163 Conclusion 167 References 168 13 Attachment 171 William F. Whelan and Anne L. Stewart Introduction 171 Description of Attachment 171 Empirical Support 173 The Role of Attachment in Causing Change 174 Strategies and Techniques 177 Clinical Applications and Clinical Vignette 179 Conclusion 181 References 182 14 Social Competence 185 Julie Blundon Nash Introduction 185 Description of Social Competence 185 Empirical Support 186 Role of Peer Relationships in Causing Change 187 Strategies and Techniques 188 Clinical Applications and Clinical Vignettes 189 Conclusion 192 References 192 15 Empathy 195 Richard Gaskill Introduction 195 Description of Empathy 196 Empirical Support 196 Components of Empathy 197 Role of Empathy in Causing Change 201 Strategies and Techniques 203 Clinical Applications 204 Summary 206 References 207 Part IV Increases Personal Strengths 211 16 Creative Problem Solving 213 Sandra W. Russ and Claire E. Wallace Introduction 213 Description of Creative Problem Solving 213 Role of Creative Problem Solving in Causing Change 214 Clinical Applications 215 Empirical Support 217 Clinical Vignette 219 References 222 17 Resiliency 225 John Seymour Description of Resiliency 226 Role of Resiliency in Causing Change 227 Clinical Applications 228 Empirical Support 233 Clinical Vignette 234 References 238 18 Moral Development 243 Jill Packman Description of Moral Development 243 Empathy 245 Neurobiology 246 Role of Moral Development in Causing Change 246 Individual Play Therapy Techniques 247 Group Play Therapy Techniques 248 Child-Parent Relationship Therapy 249 Clinical Vignettes 250 Applications 253 References 253 19 Accelerated Psychological Development 255 Siobhan Prendiville Introduction 255 Importance of the Specific Power 255 Empirical Support 255 Role of Accelerated Psychological Development in Causing Change 259 Strategies and Technique 259 Clinical Applications and Clinical Vignettes 263 References 265 20 Self-Regulation 269 Marcie Yeager and Daniel Yeager Introduction 269 The Power of Self-Regulation 270 Executive Function Allows for Goal-Directed (Intentional) Behavior 271 An Experience of Empowerment: Emphasizing the "Self" in Self-Regulation 272 Empirical Support: What the Research Shows 272 A Developmental Perspective: How Self-Regulation Is Internalized 274 The Zone of Proximal Development 277 The "Future Child" 278 The Role of Play in the Development of Self-Regulation 278 Strategies for Assessment and Treatment: Staying in the Zone 282 Summary 292 References 292 21 Self-Esteem 295 Diane Frey Introduction 295 Description of Self-Esteem 295 Empirical Support 298 Role of Self-Esteem in Causing Change 300 Strategies and Techniques 303 Clinical Applications and Clinical Vignettes 309 Conclusion 317 References 317 Author Index 319 Subject Index 331
CHARLES E. SCHAEFER, PhD, RPT-S, is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Fairleigh Dickinson University in New Jersey. Dr. Schaefer has written or edited over fifty-five professional books, many on the topic of play therapy. He cofounded the Association for Play Therapy in 1982, which currently has over 6,000 members, and now serves as Director Emeritus for the organization. ATHENA A. DREWES, PsyD, MA, RPT-S, is the Director of Clinical Training and the APA-Accredited Internship at Astor Services for Children & Families, a multiservice nonprofit agency in New York. She is past director of the Association for Play Therapy and serves on the editorial board of the International Journal of Play Therapy.
"The first Edition of The Therapeutic Powers of Play was always one of my favorite books. I couldn't imagine it could get better, but it has indeed! Focusing on the specific ingredients that activate clinical change, this book is enhanced by current research, more ample scope, and an array of contributions in contemporary and relevant topic areas. I couldn't put this book down, it is full of inspiration, direction, and grounding. This is a stunning contribution to the field of child therapy." ?Eliana Gil, Ph.D., Gil Institute for Trauma Recovery and Education "This first chapter of this book uses the concept of 'therapeutic factors' to create a very logical framework/rationale for pulling together the theories and techniques one might integrate into a prescriptive approach to play therapy. This is incredibly useful as it allows therapists to tailor their work to the needs of their child clients in a logical and systematic way. The remaining chapters describe some of those therapeutic factors and play strategies from which the prescriptive play therapist might draw in creating individualized treatment approaches." ?Kevin O'Connor, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor, California School of Professional Psychology at Alliant International University "The hallmark of a good play therapist is a clear understanding of why play interventions are pertinent, how they work to foster therapeutic change, and how to select and facilitate play therapy processes in ways that are theoretically grounded and empathically attuned to their clients' needs. The Therapeutic Powers of Play provides breadth and depth in exploring the essential features of play operating within the therapy process. Each chapter describes a fundamental therapeutic power of play, empirical support for it, its role in bringing about change, and case material to illustrate. This volume provides a key avenue for play therapists to understand the inner workings of their craft, and thereby, to enhance their use of play therapy with a wide range of client challenges." ?Rise VanFleet, Ph.D., RPT-S, CDBC; Author of Child-Centered Play Therapy; Filial Therapy: Play Therapy with Kids & Canines, and others; President, Family Enhancement & Play Therapy Center; Past Chair of the Board, the Association for Play Therapy