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Water Resources Planning


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Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables Preface Acknowledgments Abbreviations 1 Introduction: The Watery Planet Troubled Waters Calming Seas Navigating the Path Watermarks Historical Perspectives on Water Resources Development Evolution of Water Resources Planning 1800 to 1900: Emergence of Water Resources Planning 1901 to 1933: Multipurpose Projects 1934 to 1943: Economic Considerations 1944 to 1969: Multiobjective Focus 1970 to 1980: Environmental Era 1981 to 2018: Devolution and Environmental Protection Diving In: Scope of the Book Study Questions 2 The Planning Process Introduction Key Terms Scope of Planning Levels of Planning The Water Resources Planning Process Planning Steps Problem Identification Data Collection and Analysis Goals and Objectives Problem Diagnosis Formulation of Alternatives Analysis of Alternatives Evaluation and Recommendations Implementation Surveillance and Monitoring The Rational Planning Model Incorporation of Planning in Federal Activity The Benefit-Cost Approach Problems with the Rational Planning Model Technical Adjustments Incrementalism Optimization Multiple-Objective Approach Social and Political Adjustments Advocacy Planning Citizen Participation Radical Planning Trends in Planning Risk Assessment Alternative Dispute Resolution Adaptive Management Collaborative Governance Integrated Water Resources Management Savannah River Basin McKenzie River Basin Benefits of IWRM Barriers to IWRM Obstacles to Planning Benefits of Planning Study Questions 3 Hydrologic Fundamentals Introduction Key Terms The Hydrologic Cycle and Water Budget Hydrologic Cycle Precipitation Infiltration Evaporation and Transpiration Surface Runoff Groundwater Flow Water Budget Groundwater Systems Occurrence Porosity Permeability Optimal Yield Groundwater Quality Surface Water Occurrence Watersheds Surface Water Quality Groundwater/Surface Interactions Summary Study Questions Notes 4 Water Use and Supply Introduction Key Terms Water Use Water Use by Category Thermoelectric Power Use Irrigation Use Public Supply Use Industrial Use Mining, and Aquaculture and Livestock Uses Water Supply Alternative Sources (or Supply) Desalination Reclaimed Water Planning for Future Water Use Forecasting Methodologies Demand Forecasting Time Extrapolation Single-Coefficient Methods Multiple-Coefficient Methods Probabilistic Analysis IWR-MAIN Understanding Municipal Water Use Explaining Municipal Water Use State of the Art Conclusion Water Conservation Supply Forecasting Reservoirs Sequent-Peak Method Optimization Models The Water "Supply" Problem Conclusion Study Questions Notes 5 Water Law Introduction Key Terms Riparian Rights Prior Appropriation Summary of Riparian and Prior Appropriation Rights Groundwater Law Federal Reserved Water Rights National Parks, Forests, Monuments, and Military Installations Native American Water Rights Recent Issues State Surface Water Law General Stream Adjudication Reallocation of Water Supplies Water Banking Water Rights in Groundwater and Off-Reservation Water Marketing Study Questions 1 Notes 6 Federal Agencies, Legislation, and Intergovernmental Cooperation Introduction Key Terms Organizational Structure Federal Legislation Water Resources Development Legislation Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 Reclamation Act of 1902 Federal Water Power Act of 1920 National Flood Insurance Program Water Resources Development Acts Environmental Legislation Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 Clean Water Act of 1977 CWA Section 404: Dredge and Fill Permits CWA Section 401: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Water Quality Act of 1987 Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 Endangered Species Act of 1973 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 1972 Intergovernmental Activities Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Chesapeake Bay Study Questions Notes 7 State and Intergovernmental Agencies and Programs Introduction Local Agencies State Agencies California Colorado Texas Wisconsin Pennsylvania Florida Intergovernmental Water Projects and Programs Everglades National Park Chesapeake Bay Restoration CALFED Bay-Delta Program/Delta Stewardship Council Conclusion Study Questions Notes 8 Water Quality Introduction Key Terms The Hydrologic Cycle and Water Quality Nature's Effects on Water Quality Chemical Characteristics and Measures Physical Characteristics and Measures Example 1. Physical and Chemical Water Quality Characteristics: Flint, Michigan, Water Crisis Biological Characteristics and Measures Groundwater Quality Example 2. Groundwater Contamination: Industrial Waste Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Contamination in New York and Vermont Saltwater Intrusion Domestic Pollution Industrial Pollution Agricultural Pollution Quality Control Emerging Contaminants and Water Quality 1. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) 2. Nanomaterials Impacts of Land Use on Water Quality Open Space and Agriculture Example 3. Land-Water Interaction: Hydraulic Fracturing Urban Land Use Development Industrial Use Land-Water Interfaces Water Quality Planning: The Legislative Take Wastewater Planning Conclusion Study Questions Notes 9 Economic Analysis Introduction Key Terms Who Owns the Water? Principles of Public Investment Analysis Demand, Supply, and Production Functions Equity versus Efficiency Comparisons of Value and Time Benefit-Cost Analysis Discounting Techniques Cash Flow Compound-Interest Factors Hypothetical Example 1. Costs 2. Benefits Present-Worth (or Present-Value) Method Rate-of-Return Method Benefit-Cost Ratio Method Identifying Benefits and Costs Limitations and Cautions Annual-Cost Method Cost Allocation and Cost Sharing Allocation Rules Cost Sharing Study Questions Notes Appendix 9-A 10 Floodplain Management Introduction Key Terms Flooding and Floodplains Floodplains Streamflow Analysis Runoff Frequency How Floods Matter Recent Floods Floods and Floodplains: History, Policies, and Legislation Early History Flooding-Related Policy and Legislation The National Flood Insurance Program Twenty-First Century Issues and Reforms Flood Resilience Flood Damage Reduction Measures Modifying Human Susceptibility to Flood Damage and Disruption Land Use Controls Modifying Flooding Modifying the Impact of Flooding on Individuals and Communities Flood Insurance Conclusion Study Questions Notes 11 Stormwater Control and Management Introduction Key Terms What Is in Stormwater Discharges? Legal/Regulatory Framework Phase I NPDES Permit Phase II NPDES Permit Managing Municipal Stormwater Pollution Stormwater Management Programs and Plans Example: Portland, Oregon, Stormwater Management Program (SWMP) Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) Best Management Practices (BMPs) Structural BMPs/Green Infrastructure Infiltration Systems Pervious Pavement Infiltration Trenches and Wells Detention Systems Retention Systems Constructed Wetlands Filtration Systems Bioretention Nonstructural BMPs Education, Recycling, and Source Controls Maintenance Practices Conclusion Study Questions Notes 12 Models in Water Resources Planning Introduction Key Terms Model Types Simulation Models Optimization Models Model Structure Linear and Nonlinear Models Search Techniques Statistical Techniques Regression Models Decision Support Systems/Collaborative Decision-Making Models Model Selection A Note on Data Applications Water Quality Models Groundwater Models Stormwater and Watershed Models Optimization Models DSS/Collaborative Decision-Making Models Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Water Models GIS Examples Conclusion Study Questions Notes 13 Other Planning Issues Key Terms Fish and Wildlife Wetlands Navigation Harbors and Ports Waterways Recreation Hydroelectric Power Environmental Impacts Study Questions Notes 14 Future Directions Reflections Key Terms Storm Clouds (Future Challenges) Global Scale Climate Change Water Security The Water-Energy-Food Nexus Water Pricing, Privatization, and Globalization National Scale (United States) Infrastructure Legacy Data Challenges Conserving and Protecting Water Resources Cybersecurity Sunny Skies Setting Sail: The Water Resources Planner Study Questions Notes Appendix A. Federal Information Sources Introduction Federal Involvement in Water Management Data Collection and Forecasting Water Management Agreements Water Storage and Conveyance Facilities (Dams, Reservoirs, and Water Distribution Systems) Water Rights (Holding Rights to Lands They Manage or as Trustees for Tribal Water Rights) Environmental Protection (Implementing Laws Such as the Clean Water Act, Endangered Species Act, or the Safe Drinking Water Act) Water Quantity-Related Data Streamflow and Groundwater Data Precipitation Data Water Use Trend Data and Other Water Resource Data USACE Institute for Water Resources NOAA-Digital Coast Partnership Water Quality-Related Data EPA CWA-Related Data Sources EPA's Water Research/Data Portal EPA SDWA-Related Data Sources USGS Water Quality Information Note Appendix B: Conversion Table Glossary Bibliography Index About the Authors

About the Author

Andrew A. Dzurik is professor emeritus of environmental engineering at Florida State University. Tara Shenoy Kulkarni is associate professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Norwich University. Bonnie Kranzer Boland is lecturer in the Whiting School's Engineering for Professionals program at Johns Hopkins University and a water resources consultant.


This text provides an excellent introduction for the undergraduate/early graduate student on the topic of water resources planning and appropriate for courses in environmental planning as well as engineering. It includes excellent explanations of the most important topics related to water resources planning and recognizes and integrates the real-world contexts within which stakeholders, planners, managers, and decision makers operate. Its emphasis on integrated water resources management and collaborative planning and decision making is particularly important. This book will contribute to the short list of available texts that take a more holistic approach to water resources planning and recognize the 'human' aspect of successful water resources planning. -- Richard Palmer, University of Massachusetts

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