Why I am So Wise1. Ecce Homo
How One Becomes What One Is
Why I am so Wise
Why I am So Clever
Why I Write Such Good Books
Why I am a Destiny
2. Twilight of the Idols
or How to Philosophize with a Hammer
Maxims and Arrows
The Four Great Errors
The Hammer Speaks
The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was born in Prussia in 1844.
After the death of his father, a Lutheran minister, Nietzsche was
raised from the age of five by his mother in a household of women.
In 1869 he was appointed Professor of Classical Philology at the
University of Basel, where he taught until 1879 when poor health
forced him to retire. He never recovered from a nervous breakdown
in 1889 and died eleven years later. Known for saying that "god is
dead," Nietzsche propounded his metaphysical construct of the
superiority of the disciplined individual (superman) living in the
present over traditional values derived from Christianity and its
emphasis on heavenly rewards. His ideas were appropriated by the
Fascists, who turned his theories into social realities that he had
R. J. Hollingdale has translated eleven of Nietzsche's books and published two books about him. He has also translated works by, among others, Schopenhauer, Goethe, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Lichtenberg and Theodor Fontane, many of these for the Penguin Classics. He is Honorary President of the British Nietzsche Society, and was for the Australian academic year 1991 Visiting Fellow at Trinity College, Melbourne.