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Windows Server 2012 Unleashed


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Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Part I Windows Server 2012 Overview 1 Windows Server 2012 Technology Primer 5

When Is the Right Time to Migrate? 15

Versions of Windows Server 2012 16

Improvements for Continuous Availability 20

Enhancements for Flexible Identity and Security 23

Enabling Users to Work Anywhere 29

Simplifying the Datacenter 35

Addition of Migration Tools 44

Identifying Which Windows Server 2012 Service to Install or Migrate to First 45

Summary 49

Best Practices 49

2 Planning, Prototyping, Migrating, and Deploying Windows Server 2012 51

Determining the Scope of Your Project 52

Identifying the Business Goals and Objectives to Implement

Windows Server 2012 52

Identifying the Technical Goals and Objectives to Implement Windows Server 2012 55

The Discovery Phase: Understanding the Existing Environment 61

The Design Phase: Documenting the Vision and the Plan 64

The Migration Planning Phase: Documenting the Process for Migration 69

The Prototype Phase: Creating and Testing the Plan 74

The Pilot Phase: Validating the Plan to a Limited Number of Users 76

The Migration/Implementation Phase: Conducting the Migration or Installation 79

Summary 80

Best Practices 81

3 Installing Windows Server 2012 and Server Core 85

Planning for a Server Installation 85

Installing a Clean Version of Windows Server 2012

Operating System 91

Upgrading to Windows Server 2012 99

Understanding Server Core Installation 103

Managing and Configuring a Server Core Installation 105

Performing an Unattended Windows Server 2012 Installation 113

Summary 113

Best Practices 113

Part II Windows Server 2012 Active Directory 4 Active Directory Domain Services Primer 115

The Evolution of Directory Services 116

Understanding the Development of AD DS 117

AD DS Structure 118

Outlining AD DS Components 121

Understanding Domain Trusts 125

Defining Organizational Units 127

Outlining the Role of Groups in an AD DS Environment 128

Understanding AD DS Replication 130

Outlining the Role of DNS in AD DS 132

Outlining AD DS Security 134

Outlining AD DS Changes in Windows Server 2012 135

Summary 146

Best Practices 146

5 Designing a Windows Server 2012 Active Directory 149

Understanding AD DS Domain Design 149

Choosing a Domain Namespace 151

Examining Domain Design Features 152

Choosing a Domain Structure 154

Understanding the Single-Domain Model 155

Understanding the Multiple-Domain Model 158

Understanding the Multiple Trees in a Single-Forest Model 160

Understanding the Federated-Forests Model 162

Understanding the Empty-Root Domain Model 165

Understanding the Placeholder Domain Model 167

Understanding the Special-Purpose Domain Model 169

Renaming an AD DS Domain 170

Summary 173

Best Practices 173

6 Designing Organizational Unit and Group Structure 175

Defining Organizational Units in AD DS 176

Defining AD Groups 178

OU and Group Design 182

Starting an OU Design 182

Using OUs to Delegate Administration 184

Group Policies and OU Design 186

Understanding Group Design 186

Exploring Sample Design Models 188

Summary 193

Best Practices 194

7 Active Directory Infrastructure 195

Understanding AD DS Replication in Depth 195

Understanding Active Directory Sites 200

Planning Replication Topology 207

Windows Server 2012 IPv6 Support 214

Detailing Real-World Replication Designs 216

Deploying Read-Only Domain Controllers 220

Deploying a Clone Virtualized DC 223

Summary 226

Best Practices 226

8 Creating Federated Forests and Lightweight Directories 229

Keeping a Distributed Environment in Sync 229

Active Directory Federation Services 235

Synchronizing Directory Information with Forefront

Identity Manager 238

Harnessing the Power and Potential of FIM 241

Summary 244

Best Practices 244

9 Integrating AD in a Unix Environment 245

Understanding and Using Windows Server 2012 UNIX Integration

Components 245

Reviewing the Subsystem for UNIX-Based Applications 252

Administrative Improvements with Windows Server 2012 253

Summary 255

Best Practices 255

Part III Networking Services 10 Domain Name System, WINS, and DNSSEC 257

The Need for DNS 258

Getting Started with DNS on Windows Server 2012 262

Resource Records 265

Understanding DNS Zones 269

Performing Zone Transfers 273

Understanding DNS Queries 276

Other DNS Components 277

Understanding the Evolution of Microsoft DNS 285

DNS in Windows Server 2012 286

DNS in an Active Directory Domain Services Environment 288

Troubleshooting DNS 292

Secure DNS with DNSSEC 301

Reviewing the Windows Internet Naming Service 308

Installing and Configuring WINS 308

Planning, Migrating, and Maintaining WINS 312

Summary 316

Best Practices 316

11 DHCP, IPv6, IPAM 319

Understanding the Components of an Enterprise Network 319

Exploring DHCP 321

Exploring DHCP Changes in Windows Server 2012 329

Enhancing DHCP Reliability 336

Exploring Advanced DHCP Concepts 347

Securing DHCP 348

IPv6 Introduction 349

Configuring IPv6 on Windows Server 2012 360

IP Address Management 367

Installing the IPAM Server and Client Features 368

Exploring the IPAM Console 382

Summary 385

Best Practices 385

12 Internet Information Services 387

Understanding Internet Information Services 8 387

Planning and Designing IIS 8 391

Installing and Upgrading IIS 8 393

Installing and Configuring Websites 399

Installing and Configuring FTP Services 408

Securing IIS 8 418

Summary 426

Best Practices 427

Part IV Security 13 Sever-Level Security 429

Defining Windows Server 2012 Security 429

Deploying Physical Security 430

Using the Integrated Windows Firewall with Advanced

Security 433

Hardening Servers 437

Examining File-Level Security 445

Malware and Backup Protection 450

Using Windows Server Update Services 452

Summary 457

Best Practices 458

14 Securing Data in Transit 459

Introduction to Securing Data in Transit in Windows

Server 2012 460

Deploying a Public Key Infrastructure with

Windows Server 2012 461

Understanding Active Directory Certificate Services in

Windows Server 2012 463

Active Directory Rights Management Services 472

Using IPsec Encryption with Windows Server 2012 475

Summary 477

Best Practices 478

15 Network Policy Server, Network Access Protection and Routing and Remote Access 479

Understanding Network Access Protection in Windows

Server 2012 480

Deploying a Windows Server 2012 Network

Policy Server 482

Enforcing Policy Settings with a Network

Policy Server 485

Verifying the Client-Side Configuration 492

Deploying a Virtual Private Network Using RRAS 494

Summary 500

Best Practices 501

Part V Migrating to Windows Server 2012 16 Migrating from Active Directory 2008 / 2008 R2 to Active Directory 2012 503

Beginning the Migration Process 504

Big Bang Migration 507

Phased Migration 512

Multiple Domain Consolidation Migration 527

Summary 542

Best Practices 543

17 Compatibility Testing 545

The Importance of Compatibility Testing 546

Preparing for Compatibility Testing 547

Researching Products and Applications 553

Verifying Compatibility with Vendors 556

Microsoft Assessment and Planning Toolkit 562

Lab-Testing Existing Applications 562

Documenting the Results of the Compatibility Testing 565

Determining Whether a Prototype Phase Is Required 565

Summary 566

Best Practices 567

Part VI Windows Server 2012 Administration and Management 18 Windows Server 2012 Administration 569

Defining the Administrative Model 570

Examining Active Directory Site Administration 571

Configuring Sites 574

Windows Server 2012 Active Directory Groups 582

Creating Groups 583

Managing Users with Local Security and

Group Policies 588

Managing Printers with the Print Management Console 596

Summary 602

Best Practices 602

19 Windows Server 2012 Group Policies and Policy Management 605

Group Policy Overview 605

Group Policy Processing: How Does It Work? 607

Local Group Policies 609

Domain-Based Group Policies 611

Security Templates 611

Understanding Group Policy 612

Group Policy Policies Node 625

Group Policy Preferences Node 628

Policy Management Tools 628

Designing a Group Policy Infrastructure 637

GPO Administrative Tasks 641

Summary 660

Best Practices 661

20 Windows Server 2012 Management and Maintenance Practices 663

Going Green with Windows Server 2012 664

Server Manager Dashboard 665

Managing Windows Server 2012 Roles and Features 667

Creating a Server Group 672

Viewing Events 672

Server Manager Storage Page 682

Auditing the Environment 686

Managing Windows Server 2012 Remotely 695

Common Practices for Securing and Managing

Windows Server 2012 701

Keeping Up with Service Packs and Updates 703

Maintaining Windows Server 2012 707

Summary 717

Best Practices 717

21 Automating Tasks Using PowerShell Scripting 719

Understanding Shells 720

Introduction to PowerShell 722

Understanding PowerShell Fundamentals 724

Using Windows PowerShell 751

Summary 782

Best Practices 783

22 Documenting a Windows Server 2012 Environment 785

Benefits of Documentation 786

Types of Documents 787

Planning to Document the Windows Server 2012 Environment 788

Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Management 788

Windows Server 2012 Project Documents 789

Administration and Maintenance Documents 802

Network Infrastructure 806

Disaster Recovery Documentation 807

Change Management Procedures 810

Performance Documentation 810

Baselining Records for Documentation Comparisons 811

Routine Reporting 811

Security Documentation 812

Summary 813

Best Practices 813

23 Integrating System Center Operations Manager 2012 with Windows Server 2012 815

Windows Server 2012 Monitoring 816

Understanding How OpsMgr Works 818

OpsMgr Architecture Components 823

Securing OpsMgr 834

Fault Tolerance and Disaster Recovery 839

Understanding OpsMgr Components 845

Putting It All Together in a Design 850

Installing Operations Manager 2012 858

Configuring OpsMgr 873

Administering OpsMgr 882

Exploring the Windows 2012 Management Pack 889

Summary 900

Best Practices 900

Part VII Remote and Mobile Technologies 24 Server-to-Client Remote and Mobile Access 903

What's New for Remote Access in Windows Server 2012 905

VPN in Windows Server 2012 907

RAS System Authentication Options 911

VPN Protocols 913

DirectAccess in Windows Server 2012 918

Choosing Between Traditional VPN Technologies

and DirectAccess 928

Setting Up the Unified Remote Access Role 932

DirectAccess Scenario 933

VPN Scenario 941

Monitoring the Remote Access Server 958

Summary 962

Best Practices 963

25 Remote Desktop Services 965

Why Implement Remote Desktop Services? 966

How Remote Desktop Works 968

Understanding the Name Change 970

RDS Roles 971

Configuration Options and Fine-Tuning Terminology 979

Planning for RDS 985

Deploying RDS 991

Deploying Virtual Desktops 1003

Enabling RemoteFX 1011

Securing and Supporting RDS 1013

Summary 1017

Best Practices 1017

Part VIII Desktop Administration 26 Windows Server 2012 Administration Tools for Desktops 1019

Managing Desktops and Servers 1020

Operating System Deployment Options 1021

Windows Server 2012 Windows Deployment Services 1024

Installing Windows Deployment Services 1026

Customizing Boot Images 1037

Creating Discover Images 1041

Pre-Creating Active Directory Computer Accounts for WDS (Prestaged Systems) 1042

Creating Custom Installations Using Capture Images 1046

Automating Image Deployment Using Unattend Files 1049

General Desktop Administration Tasks 1050

Summary 1050

Best Practices 1050

27 Group Policy Management for Network Clients 1053

The Need for Group Policies 1054

Windows Group Policies 1055

Group Policy Feature Set 1058

Planning Workgroup and Standalone Local Group Policy

Configuration 1063

Planning Domain Group Policy Objects 1066

Managing Computers with Domain Policies 1075

Configuring Preference Item-Level Targeting 1083

Managing Users with Policies 1093

Managing Active Directory with Policies 1100

Summary 1112

Best Practices 1112

Part IX Fault Tolerance Technologies 28 File System Management and Fault Tolerance 1115

Windows Server 2012 File System Overview 1115

File System Access Services and Technologies 1125

Managing Windows Server 2012 Disks 1126

Adding the File and Storage Services Role 1132

Managing Data Access Using Windows Server 2012 Shares 1133

File Server Resource Manager 1137

The Distributed File System 1149

Planning a DFS Deployment 1154

Installing and Configuring DFS 1157

Using the Volume Shadow Copy Service 1163

Configuring Data Deduplication 1166

Configuring Storage Spaces 1168

Dynamic Access Control 1172

Summary 1185

Best Practices 1186

29 System-Level Fault Tolerance (Clustering / Network Load Balancing) 1189

Building Fault-Tolerant Windows Server 2012 Systems 1190

Windows Server 2012 Clustering Technologies 1192

Determining the Correct Clustering Technology 1198

Overview of Failover Clusters 1200

Deploying Failover Clusters 1206

Backing Up and Restoring Failover Clusters 1228

Deploying Network Load Balancing Clusters 1232

Managing NLB Clusters 1240

Network Teaming 1242

Summary 1243

Best Practices 1243

30 Backing Up the Windows Server 2012 Environment 1245

Understanding Your Backup and Recovery Needs and Options 1246

Creating the Disaster Recovery Solution 1249

Documenting the Enterprise 1250

Developing a Backup Strategy 1251

Windows Server Backup Overview 1252

Using Windows Server Backup 1255

Managing Backups Using the Command-Line Utility Wbadmin.exe and Windows PowerShell Cmdlets 1261

Backing Up Active Directory 1264

Backing Up Windows Server 2012 Roles 1269

Volume Shadow Copy Service 1270

Extending Server Backup to the Enterprise with Data Protection Manager 2012 1271

Summary 1271

Best Practices 1272

31 Recovering from a Disaster 1273

Ongoing Backup and Recovery Preparedness 1273

When Disasters Strike 1277

Disaster Scenario Troubleshooting 1279

Recovering from a Server or System Failure 1282

Managing and Accessing Windows Server Backup Media 1289

Windows Server Backup Volume Recovery 1290

Recovering Role Services and Features 1294

Summary 1301

Best Practices 1301

Part X Optimizing, Tuning, Debugging, and Problem Solving 32 Optimizing Windows 2012 for Branch Office Communications 1303

Key Branch Office Features in Windows 2012 1304

Understanding Read-Only Domain Controllers 1304

Using BitLocker with Windows Server 2012 1321

BranchCache in Windows 2012 1332

Printing with Branch Office Direct Printing 1345

Summary 1347

Best Practices 1347

33 Logging and Debugging 1349

Using the Task Manager for Logging and Debugging 1349

Using Event Viewer for Logging and Debugging 1357

Performance Monitoring 1368

Setting Baseline Values 1395

Using the Debugging Tools Available in Windows Server 2012 1397

Task Scheduler 1411

Summary 1416

Best Practices 1417

34 Capacity Analysis and Performance Optimization 1419

Defining Capacity Analysis 1419

Using Capacity-Analysis Tools 1424

Monitoring System Performance 1442

Optimizing Performance by Server Roles 1451

Summary 1457

Best Practices 1458

Part XI Integrated Windows Application Services 35 Sharepoint 2010 Products 1459

History of SharePoint Technologies 1460

SharePoint Foundation 2010 Versus SharePoint Server 2010 1462

Identifying the Need for SharePoint 2010 Products 1466

Designing a SharePoint 2010 Farm 1467

Exploring a Basic SharePoint 2010 Site 1471

Lists and Libraries in SharePoint 2010 1474

Managing the Site Collection 1486

Summary 1494

Best Practices 1494

36 Deploying and Using Windows Virtualization 1497

Understanding Microsoft's Virtualization Strategy 1497

Integration of Hypervisor Technology in

Windows Server 2012 1500

Planning Your Implementation of Hyper-V 1504

Installing the Microsoft Hyper-V Role 1507

Becoming Familiar with the Hyper-V Administrative Console 1510

Installing a Guest Operating System Session 1516

Modifying Guest Session Configuration Settings 1520

Launching a Hyper-V Guest Session 1523

Using Snapshots of Guest Operating System Sessions 1525

Quick Migration and Live Migration 1527

Utilizing Hyper-V Replica for Site-to-Site Redundancy 1540

Summary 1547

Best Practices 1548

Index 1549

About the Author

Rand Morimoto, Ph.D., MVP, MCITP, CISSP, has been in the computer industry for more than 30 years and has authored, coauthored, or been a contributing writer for dozens of books on Windows, Security, Exchange, BizTalk, and Remote and Mobile Computing. Rand is the president of Convergent Computing, an IT-consulting firm in the San Francisco Bay area that has been one of the key early adopter program partners with Microsoft, implementing the latest Microsoft technologies, including Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2, System Center 2012, Windows 7, Exchange Server 2013, Windows Server 2012, and SharePoint 2010 in production environments more than 18 months before the initial product releases. Michael Noel, MCITP, MVP, is an internationally recognized technology expert, bestselling author, and well-known public speaker on a broad range of IT topics. He authored multiple major industry books that have been translated into more than a dozen languages worldwide. Michael has presented at over one hundred technical and business conferences in more than fifty countries around the world and on all seven continents, including the first ever IT conference in Antarctica. Currently a partner at Convergent Computing (www.cco.com) in the San Francisco Bay area, Michael's writing and extensive public-speaking experience across all seven continents leverage his real-world expertise in helping organizations realize business value from Information Technology infrastructure. Guy Yardeni, MCITP, CISSP, MVP, is an accomplished infrastructure architect, author, and overall geek-for-hire. Guy has been working in the IT industry for more than 15 years and has extensive experience designing, implementing, and supporting enterprise technology solutions. Guy is an expert at connecting business requirements to technology solutions and driving to successful completion the technical details of the effort while maintaining overall goals and vision. Guy maintains a widely read technical blog at www.rdpfiles.com and is a Windows MVP. Omar Droubi, MCSE, MCTS, has maintained a successful career and delivered quality work as a senior Information Technology professional for more than 20 years by keeping current with the latest technological developments and trends. As a writer, he has coauthored several Sams Publishing best-selling books, including Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Unleashed, Windows Server 2008 Unleashed, and Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed. Omar has also been a contributing writer and technical reviewer on several Microsoft Exchange Server books and publications. He has been deeply involved in testing, designing, and prototyping Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 for the past several years and plans to assist organizations in getting the most out of the latest features included in the products. Andrew Abbate enjoys the position of principal consultant and partner at Convergent Computing. With nearly 20 years of experience in IT, Andrew's area of expertise is understanding a business's needs and translating that to process and technologies to solve real problems. Having worked with companies from the Fortune Ten to companies of 10, Andrew has a unique perspective on IT and a grasp on "big picture" consulting. Andrew has also written eight industry books on varying technologies ranging from Windows to Security to Unified Communications. Chris Amaris, MCITP, MCTS, CISSP/ISSAP, CHS III, is the chief technology officer and cofounder of Convergent Computing. He has more than 20 years experience consulting for Fortune 500 companies, leading companies in the technology selection, design, planning, and implementation of complex information technology projects. Chris has worked with Microsoft System Center products such as Operations Manager and Configuration Manager since their original releases in 2000 and 1994. He specializes in messaging, security, performance tuning, systems management, and migration. Receiving his first Microsoft technologies certification in 1993, Chris is a current Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP) with multiple Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS) certifications in System Center technologies, a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) with an Information System Security Architecture Professional (ISSAP) concentration, Certified Homeland Security (CHS III), a Novell CNE, a Banyan CBE, and a Certified Project Manager. Chris is also an author, writer, and technical editor for a number of IT books, including System Center 2012 Unleashed, Network Security for Government and Corporate Executives, Exchange 2010 Unleashed , and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed.

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