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With Their Backs to the Mountains


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Table of Contents

List of Maps List of Tables Introduction Chapter 1. Carpatho-Rusyns and the land of Carpathian Rus' Human geography No shortage of names Physical geography A borderland of borders 2. Carpathian Rus' in prehistoric times Earliest human settlements The Iron Age and the Celts Early peoples in Carpathian Rus' The Roman Empire and the Dacians 3. The Slavs and their arrival in the Carpathians The Huns and the displacement of peoples The origin-of-peoples fetish Is DNA the reliable way? The Slavs and Carpathian Rus' Dwellings of the early Slavs The White Croats and the Avars 4. State formation in central Europe The Pax Romana and the Byzantine Empire Greater Moravia Saints Constantine/Cyril and Methodius Christianity becomes "our" religion Who among the East Slavs first received Christianity? The Magyars and Hungary Historical memory and political reality The rise of Poland Kievan Rus' The Great Debate: the origin of Rus' 5. Carpathian Rus' until the early 16th century Formation of the Hungarian Kingdom A medieval Carpatho-Rusyn state: fact or fiction? The Mongol invasion and the restructuring of Hungary The Vlach colonization Kings, nobles, and the implementation of serfdom Poland: administrative and socioeconomic structure The fall of Constantinople and the decline of Orthodoxy 6. The Reformation, the Counter-Reformation, and Carpathian Rus' The Ottoman Empire in central Europe The Protestant Reformation The Catholic Counter-Reformation Poland and church union Uniates/Greek Catholics: A new church or a return to the old? Transylvania and church union in Hungary 7. The Habsburg restoration in Carpathian Rus' Rakoczi's "War of Liberation" Habsburg Austria's transformation of Carpathian Rus' The Bachka-Srem Vojvodinian Rusyns Poland and Galicia's Lemko Region 8. Habsburg reforms and their impact on Carpatho-Rusyns The reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II Uniate/Greek Catholics and the Enlightenment in Carpathian Rus' Carpatho-Rusyns become an historical people 9. The Revolution of 1848 and the Carpatho-Rusyn national awakening The multicultural Austrian Empire Kakania's emperors and kings What is nationalism and what are national movements? Nationalism in Hungary From inferiority to superiority: the transformation of a dangerous complex Revolution in the Austrian lands and Hungary The Carpatho-Rusyn national awakening: politics The first Carpatho-Rusyn political program The Carpatho-Rusyn national awakening: culture Did Carpatho-Rusyns really love the Russians? 10. Carpathian Rus' in Austria-Hungary, 1868-1914 The Dual Monarchy and Austrian parliamentarism In search of a Rus' national identity The national awakening in the Lemko Region Hungary and its magyarization policies Magyarization despite the letter of the law Carpatho-Rusyns in Hungarian politics Carpatho-Rusyns and national survival Socioeconomic developments Was life in pre-World War I Carpathian Rus' so destitute? 11. Carpatho-Rusyn diasporas before World War I Migration to the Srem, Banat, and Bachka Emigration abroad to the United States Rusyn-American religious and secular organizations Rejected Greek Catholics and the "return" to Orthodoxy "You are not a proper priest" "Ruthenians" become Uhro (Hungarian)-Rusyns, or Russians, or Ukrainians Rusyn Americans and international politics 12. Carpathian Rus' during World War I, 1914-1918 The end of civilized Europe World War I in Carpathian Rus' The war against Carpatho-Rusyn civilians Magyarization reaches its peak 13. The end of the old and the birth of a new order, 1918-1919 National self-determination and socialist revolution Rusyn Americans mobilize politically Political mobilization in the Carpatho-Rusyn homeland Hungary's autonomous Rus' Land The Ukrainian option The meaning of Ukraine Carpatho-Rusyns on the international stage 14. Subcarpathian Rus' in interwar Czechoslovakia, 1919-1938 Czechoslovakia and "Rusyns south of the Carpathians" Borders and the autonomy question Carpatho-Rusyn national anthems Hungarian irredentism Political life Socioeconomic developments Subcarpathian Rus': Czechoslovakia's architectural tabula rasa Education and culture Churches and the religious question Orthodoxy: the jurisdictional problem The nationality and language questions The language question 15. The Presov Region in interwar Slovakia, 1919-1938 Borders, schools, and censuses The problem of statistics Carpatho-Rusyn and Slovaks Socioeconomic developments Education The religious question The nationality question and cultural developments 16. The Lemko Region in interwar Poland, 1919-1939 Poland, its Ukrainian problem, and the Lemko Region Socioeconomic status of the Lemko Rusyns Religious and civic activity The Lemko-Rusyn national awakening 17. Carpatho-Rusyn diasporas during the interwar years, 1919-1938 Romania and Hungary Yugoslavia-the Vojvodina The United States Marriage and property: two sticking points 18. Other peoples in Subcarpathian Rus' Magyars Jews Relations between Jews and Carpatho-Rusyns Germans Romanians, Slovaks, and Roma/Gypsies Russians, Ukrainians, and Czechs 19. Autonomous Subcarpathian Rus' and Carpatho-Ukraine, 1938-1939 The struggle for autonomy during the interwar years Nazi Germany and the Munich Pact Autonomous Subcarpathian Rus' From Subcarpathian Rus' to Carpatho-Ukraine Alternatives to the Ukrainian national orientation Carpatho-Ukraine's road to "independence" 20. Carpathian Rus' during World War II, 1939-1944 Nazi Germany's New Order in Europe The Lemko Region in Nazi Germany Carpatho-Rusyns in the Slovak state Subcarpathian Rus' in Hungary The apogee of the Rusyn national orientation Opposition to Hungarian rule 21. Carpathian Rus' in transition, 1944-1945 The Soviet Army and Ukrainian nationalist partisans Rusyn/Lemko Americans and the war in Europe The Soviet "liberation" of Subcarpathian Rus' Transcarpathian Ukraine and "reunification" The act of reunification Czechoslovakia acquiesces to Soviet hegemony Why did Czechoslovakia give up Subcarpathian Rus'? The new Poland and the deportation of the Lemkos: Phase one 22. Subcarpathian Rus'/Transcarpathia in the Soviet Union, 1945-1991 Subcarpathian Rus' becomes Soviet Transcarpathia The Soviet socio-political model Totalitarian time Forced collectivization and industrialization Transcarpathia's new peoples Revising the past and reckoning with "enemies of the people" How Carpatho-Rusyns were declared Ukrainians Destruction of the Greek Catholic Church Transcarpathia's new Soviet society Love of the East 23. The Presov Region in postwar and Communist Czechoslovakia, 1945-1989 Postwar politics: the Ukrainian National Council Population transfers and the UPA Communist Czechoslovakia according to the Soviet model Carpatho-Rusyns are ukrainianized The Prague Spring and the rebirth of Carpatho-Rusyns Soviet-style political consolidation and reukrainianization Socioeconomic achievements and national assimilation 24. The Lemko Region and Lemko Rusyns in Communist Poland, 1945-1989 Poland reconstituted and restructured The deportation of the Lemkos: Phase two Greek Catholic and Orthodox Lemkos Lemkos as Ukrainians Lemko fear and anxiety 25. Carpatho-Rusyn diasporas old and new, 1945-1989 Soviet Ukraine (Galicia and Volhynia) Czechoslovakia (Bohemia and Moravia) Romania (the Banat and Maramures Regions) Yugoslavia (Vojvodina and Srem) The United States We want to know who we are 26. The Revolutions of 1989 Transformation and demise of the Soviet Union The end of Communist rule in central Europe Carpatho-Rusyns reassert their existence One people despite international borders Proclamation of the World Congress of Rusyns The autonomy question again 27. Post-Communist Transcarpathia-Ukraine Unfulfilled political expectations Ukraine's "Rusyn question" Carpatho-Rusyns in the international context Socioeconomic realities A failed or incomplete national movement? Traditional religious and secular culture Protestantism and Carpatho-Rusyns 28. The post-Communist Presov Region and the Lemko Region-Slovakia and Poland Czechoslovakia's Velvet Revolution Censuses confirm nationalities Independent Slovakia and the European Union Presov Region Carpatho-Rusyns confirm their existence Codification of a Rusyn literary language The Greek Catholic Church: a positive or negative force? Nationality assertion and assimilation Poland's three Lemko-Rusyn communities Lemko Rusyns or Lemko Ukrainians? The Vatra: a symbol of national and political advocacy The attraction of Polish assimilation 29. Other Carpatho-Rusyn communities in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989 Ukraine Czech Republic Hungary Romania Yugoslavia-Serbia and Croatia The United States Canada 30. Carpathian Rus'-real or imagined? Carpathian Rus': a reality or an idea? Carpathian Rus' beyond Carpathian Rus' Enemies as friends A movement of women and young people Education and national self-confidence Notes For further reading 1. Reference works and general studies 2. Prehistoric times to the 16th century 3. The 17th and early 18th centuries 4. The reform era and Habsburg rule, 1770s to 1847 5. The Revolution of 1848 to the end of World War I 6. The interwar years, 1919-1938 7. International crises and World War II, 1938-1945 8. The Communist era, 1945-1989 9. The Revolutions of 1989 and their aftermath Index

About the Author

Paul Robert Magocsi is Professor of History and Political Science, Chair of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Toronto

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